The Forged Chronicle of Bishop Maximus of Zaragoza: Translation and Overview
For the historian of antiquity and late antiquity, the discovery of any new written source or rediscovery of a written source previously thought to have been lost is usually a very exciting development. After all, the written records from those times are rather sparse in comparison with the wealth of information for the person wishing to document more recent events. Any apparent discovery, however, must undergo examination to ensure its authenticity.
For the period of Spain’s history during late antiquity and the early medieval period, we have some authentic surviving works from the likes of Isidore of Seville, Julian of Toledo, John of Biclaro, and the Mozarabic Chronicle. According to Toledan archbishop Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada in his prologue to the Gothic History (13th century), many relevant works for documenting Spain’s history were lost during the period of the Muslim conquest of Spain. One of those lost works would appear to be the writings of a certain Maximus, a bishop of Zaragoza (Caesaraugusta) who did in fact exist as he is mentioned by Isidore of Seville in De viris illustribus. According to Isidore, Maximus wrote “in brief form a little history about those things that have been done in the Spanish lands in the times of the Goths.” In the late sixteenth century CE, however, fragments of Maximus’ writings had supposedly been rediscovered by a Spanish Jesuit called Jerónimo Román de la Higuera y Lupián (1538-1611 CE). These alleged writings take the form of a chronicle spanning the period 430-606 CE, initially covering late Western Roman history for the most part and then turning more exclusively to Spanish history following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, concluding with the rule of the Visigothic king Witeric in Spain.
If this chronicle had been authentic, it would have offered some interesting new perspectives on Spain’s history. For me, the most notable claim according to these writings is that the Visigothic king Leovigild- noted for his adherence to Arianism- underwent a deathbed conversion to Catholicism and entrusted his son Recared to the Catholic faith. The claim of Leovigild’s deathbed conversion does not appear in the surviving authentic records except the account of Gregory of Tours (Histories 8.46), who caveats by saying that “some assert” that it happened. The other (Spanish) accounts do not mention this and note instead that it was Recared who converted to Catholicism following his accession to the throne after Leovigild’s death. In other places, the purported chronicle presents notable errors: for instance, the chronicle places the Vandal king Hunneric’s death in 477 CE when in fact that was when his father and predecessor Gaiseric/Genseric died.
Unfortunately, the chronicle is a forgery created by Jerónimo, who was in fact a serial forger and falsifier of history. Besides the Maximus chronicle, Jerónimo created three other forged chronicles. The most renowned of these forged chronicles is one attributed to a fourth century Roman imperial official called Flavius Lucius Dexter (who existed and is mentioned by St. Jerome). The other two chronicles are one attributed to Luitprand (who had supposedly at one point been a subdeacon in Toledo and later a deacon in Pavia, though he is actually known as bishop of Cremona with multiple surviving authentic works) and another attributed to Julián Pérez, an archdeacon of Toledo who supposedly lived in the 11th century CE but never actually existed. Jerónimo’s fabrications were called out early on by Nicolás Antonio (a scholar from Seville) in a work that he wrote in 1652 CE but was not published until nearly 100 years after his own death (1742 CE) by Gregorio Mayáns y Síscar. Only by the end of that century was it acknowledged more widely in Spanish circles that these chronicles were forgeries.
Any forgery of course raises the question of motivation for its creation. In Jerónimo’s case, his motivation appears to have been a desire to create a comprehensive and unbroken line of Spanish sacred history, reacting in part to revisions to the Roman Breviary and Martyrology carried out under the supervision of Cardinal Cesare Baronio. These reforms sought to create more uniform liturgy that excised dubious stories and traditions. These reforms were part of a program of liturgical reform initiated by Pope Pius V (papacy: 1566-1572 CE). In effect, Jerónimo’s forgeries could be seen as aiming in part to preserve stories and traditions under threat of removal. Another likely specific aim within the framework of Jerónimo’s program was the desire to glorify Toledo’s status within the history of the church in Spain- somewhat similar to Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada’s own agenda centuries earlier to assert the primacy of Toledo within the church of Spain and incorporate that into his historical writings, though while Rodrigo has some harsher critics who see him as a manipulator working in service of that agenda, no one has ever accused him of forging historical works in the manner of Jerónimo.
I present the forged chronicle of Maximus of Zaragoza below in translation along with light annotations. The text is taken from the Patrologia Latina.
Chronicle of Maximus the Bishop of Caesaraugusta
Era 468 (430 CE): Augustine died in Africa
Era 469 (431 CE).: Hispania was thrown into turmoil
Era 470 (432 CE): The harshness of the cold was also a source of ruin for the health of very many. Aetius[i] turned away Bonifacius[ii] (who had been summoned from Africa by the queen) from the consulship brought out by edict. The former hurried to more fortified places. Bonifacius had a struggle against Aetius and was struck. While he was indeed victor, he nonetheless went away on the verge of death. When Aetius had brought himself after the battle to the people of the Huns, over whom Rugila was in charge at the time, he returned with help to Roman soil. The Goths were summoned to provide help for the Romans. Germanus the bishop of Antissiodora was renowned for his virtues and his ascetic life.
Era 471 (433 CE): Aetius was gracefully received. Rugila the king of the Huns, with whom a peace had been signed, died and was succeeded by Bleda.
Era 472 (434 CE): Further Gaul followed Tibato the leader of a rebellion and revolted from association with Rome. From this beginning that was drawn out, almost all the servile elements of the Gallic lands conspired to rise up in a Bagauda revolt. Isidore the bishop of Cordoba died.
Era 473 (435 CE): A memorable war flared up against the Burgundian people. In this almost the entire people were destroyed along with their king Peresius.
Era 474 (436 CE): After Tibato was captured and the rest of the leaders of the revolt were partly defeated and partly killed, the rebellion of the Bagaudae fell silent. Among the kings of the Goths, the following successions took place: Sigeric succeeded Ataulph, Walia Sigeric, and Theoderic Walia. Meanwhile Carthage was destroyed by the Vandals.
Era 475 (437 CE): Castinus was made bishop of Toledo after Martinus. The Theodosian book of all the laws of the legitimate emperors brought together in one volume was published in this year. Lampius was succeeded by Bangius as bishop of Barcelona. Silvius, of somewhat disturbed mind wrote some things about religion after completing the duties of military service in the palace.
Era 476 (438 CE): After the revolts of the Gallic lands were pacified, Aetius returned to Italy.
Era 477 (439 CE): The rural areas of Valencia were abandoned and handed over to the Alans (over whom Sambia was in charge) for the purpose of distribution among them. After Sabinus the bishop of Seville was expelled, Epiphanius was inserted in his place. The British lands, lacerated all the way up to this time through disasters and events, were brought under the authority of the Saxons.
Era 478 (440 CE): Leo became the 45th leader of the Roman Church.
Era 479 (441 CE): The Alans, to whom the lands of Further Gaul had been handed over by Aetius for the purpose of division with the inhabitants, subjugated by arms those resisting them. After expelling the masters, they gained possession of the land by force.
Era 480 (442 CE): Sapaudia was given to the remnants of the Burgundians to be divided with the indigenous people. Carthage, after being captured by the Vandals, cast away (simultaneously along with all of Africa) the power of the Roman Empire in a lamentable disaster and loss. From this point it was possessed by the Vandals.
Era 481 (443 CE): Thrace was struck by an incursion of the Huns.
Era 482 (444 CE): Bleda the king of the Huns was struck down by the trickery of his brother Attila, who succeeded him. The later synod of Arausica.
Era 483 (445 CE): New ruin arose again in the East, in which no less than 70 cities were devastated by the plundering of the Huns, while no help was brought from the Western parts.
Era 484 (446 CE): Morobaeus ruled in Francia.
Era 485 (447 CE): Leo wrote to the bishops of Spain, and in particular to Turibius the bishop of Astorga.
Era 486 (448 CE): Many bishops gathered at Aquae Celenae (the town of Galicia) in Spain: but in particular Turibius of Astorga, Idatius of Lamaca, Ascanius of Tarraco, Campeius of Toledo, Epiphanius of Seville, Valconius of Braga, Nundinarius of Barcelona, Silvianus of Calagurra. This was in opposition to the errors of Priscillianus, which had not yet been laid to rest.
Era 487 (449 CE): Eucherius the bishop of Lugdunum and Hilarius of Arles died and thus came to the end of their outstanding lives. A wicked heresy was roused by Eutyches a certain archimandrite. He was given support by Theodosius, who died after completing 27 years of imperial rule.
Valentinian[iii] and Marcian
Era 488 (450 CE): In this storm the very miserable condition of the state became apparent, since not even one province was without barbarian inhabitant, and the wicked heresy of the Arians, which mixed with the barbarian nations, was spread over the whole world and presumed the name of the Catholic faith. Attila entered the Gallic lands, and demanded a wife as though she were due by right to him. There, after suffering and receiving a grave defeat, he retreated to his own abodes.
Era 489 (451 CE): Very many signs appeared in this year. After receiving an unexpected defeat in the Gallic lands, the enraged Attila attacked Italy, which the inhabitants, terrified with sudden fear, stripped of garrison.
Era 490 (452 CE): The Chalcedonian synod, where Eutyches and Dioscorus were damned. All who had renounced them were received into communion. There was universal confirmation of the faith, which was preached by the holy Pope Leo concerning the incarnation of the Word.
Era 491 (453 CE): Attila died in his own abodes. Galla Placidia Augusta[iv] came to the end of her life after irreprehensible conduct.
Era 492 (454 CE): Simplicius was put in place of Petrus of Caesaraugusta, who had succeeded Valerianus.
Era 493 (455 CE): The death of Valentinian followed the death of Aetius.
Era 494 (456 CE): Genseric came from Africa to Rome, and occupied it.
Era 495 (457 CE): Majorian was made emperor after Sabinus was killed. He ruled for four years.
Era 496 (458 CE): Claudian the bishop of Vienne flourished.
Era 497 (459 CE): Sabinus the bishop of Seville returned victoriously from Gaul and reclaimed his seat with massive congratulations for him. Theuderic, with Hunneric as leader, invaded Baetica.[v]
Era 498 (460 CE): Masdra the king of the Suevi[vi] died.
Era 499 (461 CE): Suneric returned to the Gallic lands.
Era 500 (462 CE): Hilarius was put in charge in succession to Saint Leo. Severus succeeded Majorian Augustus who was killed at Detorsa in Italy.
Era 501 (463 CE): After Campijus died, he was succeeded by Santicius of Toledo, while Trontius succeeded Sabinus of Seville.
Era 502 (464 CE): In the assembly of Braga, a portent of two natures was discerned, so also in the area of León.
Era 503 (465 CE): Ajax the Gaul, infected with the Arian pest, poured out his poison on the Suevi.
Era 504 (466 CE): After Severus died, there was an interregnum of one year and nine months or so.
Era 505 (467 CE): Ascanius the bishop of Tarraco flourished.
Era 506 (468 CE): Hilarius held a synod at Rome.
Era 507 (469 CE): Euric the king of the Visigoths afflicted Gaul with misery, and the holy bishop Volusianus of Turo was relegated in Spain.
Era 508 (470 CE): Remismund the king of the Suevi occupied Conimbria and (through the betrayal of Lusidius) Uylssipo: the main cities of Lusitania.[vii]
Era 509 (471 CE): Paulus Orosius, more than 90 years old, was still living in Tarraco.
Era 510 (472 CE): After Santicio died, Praumatus controlled the seat of Toledo.
Era 511 (473 CE): Hunneric the king of the Vandals in Africa harassed the Catholics in remarkable ways.
Era 512 (474 CE): By the order of Hunneric, Liberatus the abbot, Bonifacius the deacon, Rusticus the subdeacon, Rogatus, Septimius and Maximus the monks were made martyrs for the faith.
Era 513 (475 CE): Hildefred gained possession of the coastal cities after besieging Tarragona.
Era 514 (476 CE): Hunneric vented his rage against the Catholics with even more cruelty.
Era 515 (477 CE): Hunneric, gushing with worms, met a death worthy of his life.
Era 516 (478 CE): Sidonius Apollinaris the renowned poet and bishop of Arveni was outstanding through his literature and holiness.
Era 517 (479 CE): Petrus Mongus, expelled from the church of Alexandria, stirred up the heresy of Eutyches.
Era 518 (480 CE): After Hunneric died, Gundemund restored peace to the churches.
Era 519 (481 CE): Euric the king of the Visigoths saw at Arles that the weapons of the palatine men were stained with various colours.
Era 520 (482 CE): Euric died at Arles, and was succeeded by his son Alaric.
Era 521 (483 CE): Pope Felix the successor of Simplicius made Zeno the bishop of Seville his legate in Spain. Simplicius of Caesaraugusta was succeeded by Joannes.
Era 522 (484 CE): The Roman Synod was held in the Vatican.
Augustulus the last emperor of the West[viii]
Era 523 (485 CE): Petrus was put in charge in succession to Praumatus in the seat of Toledo.
Era 524 (486 CE): Roman synod.
Era 525 (487 CE): Epiphanius the bishop of Ticinum was renowned for the holiness of his life.
Era 526 (488 CE): Gundemund the Catholic king of the Vandals was succeeded by Thrasamund the very cruel heretic.
Era 527 (489 CE): Fulgentius the Ruspensian bishop endured many things at the hands of the Arians for the sake of his Catholic faith.
Era 528 (490 CE): King Clodovaeus made war on the Thuringi.
Era 529 (491 CE): Theodoric entered into a treaty with Odoacer concerning the partition of the realm.
Era 530 (492 CE): Epaunensian synod.
Era 531 (493 CE): Roman synod. Celsius succeeded Peter of Toledo.
Era 532 (494 CE): Pope Gelasius died, and he was succeeded by Anastasius Junior.
Era 533 (495 CE): Celsius flourished by word and example.
Era 534 (496 CE): Olympius, who raged in madness against the Holy Trinity, perished after being pierced by three fiery weapons.
Era 535 (497 CE): Flavianus headed the Antiochian Church.
Era 536 (498 CE): Roman synods under Pope Symmachus. Synnachus called the bishops at Rome to council three times.
Era 537 (499 CE): Mundabund disputed with Avitus the bishop of Vienne.
Era 538 (500 CE): Petrus the tyrant was captured and killed in Spain.
Era 539 (501 CE): Alaric attacked Gaul.
Era 540 (502 CE): Vincentius succeeded Joannes of Caesaraugusta.
Era 541 (503 CE): Justus the bishop of Auca flourished.
Era 542 (504 CE): Alaric violated Clodovaeus’ treaty.
Era 543 (505 CE): Clodovaeus stabbed Alaric with a spear.
Era 544 (506 CE): Gasalaric the king of the Visigoths fled from Spain.
Era 546 (508 CE): Theodoric the king of the Ostrogoths[ix] came to Spain. Sanctina of Toledo- the very noble virgin- married him.
Era 547 (509 CE): Three other synods under Symmachus at Rome.
Era 548 (510 CE): Pope Symmachus died. Galasius died in Gaul.
Era 549 (511 CE): Hormisda succeeded Symmachus.
Era 550 (512 CE): Hormisda sent letters and honoured Joannes the bishop of Tarraco.
Era 551 (513 CE): Joannes the metropolitan bishop of Tarraco presided over a synod held a Tarraco, and among others Hector the metropolitan bishop of Carthage participated.
Era 552 (514 CE): Severianus was born from Sanctina to King Theodoric. A synod was held in Baetica and Lusitania.
Era 553 (515 CE): Hormisda delegated his duties in Baetica and Lusitania to Sallustius the bishop of Seville.
Era 554 (516 CE): Saint Justus succeeded Canidius the Vicensian bishop.
Era 555 (517 CE): Joannes the bishop succeeded Vincentius of Caesaraugusta.
Era 556 (518 CE): Dacius headed the church of Milan.
Era 557 (518 CE): Gilimer deposed Hilderic from the kingdom of the Vandals.
Era 558 (519 CE): Justinus the emperor issued an edict that the churches of the Arians should be entrusted to the Catholics.
Era 559 (520 CE): Belisarius[x] reclaimed Africa, while Gilimer was led to Constantinople.
Era 560 (521 CE): Agnellus the outstanding bishop of Ravenna.[xi]
Era 564 (526 CE): The synod of Valencia was held under Celsius the bishop of Toledo.
Era 565 (527 CE): Amalaric the king of the Visigoths had his Catholic wife Clotildis punished.
Era 566 (528 CE): Eleutherius succeeded Joannes the bishop of Caesaraugusta.
Era 567 (529 CE): Aprungius the Pacensian bishop flourished.
Era 568 (530 CE): The Toledan synod under Montanus the bishop of Toledo.
Era 569 (531 CE): King Amalaric died, succeeded by Theudius.
Era 570 (532 CE): Silverius succeeded Agapetus.
Era 571 (533 CE): Saint Gaudiosus the bishop of Tiraso flourished.
Era 572 (534 CE): The second synod of Aurelia.
Era 573 (535 CE): Silverius was sent into exile.
Era 574 (536 CE): Julianus succeeded the holy bishop Montanus in the Toledan seat, who as Celsus’ successor renowned for the fame of his holiness migrated to heaven on the day before the Nones of April.[xii]
Era 575 (537 CE): Theobald the king of the Goths ruled in Italy.
Era 576 (538 CE): Leander the son of Severianus was born in Murcia in Hispania from his mother Theodosia. Laureanus came to Mediolanum in Pannonia, and from there to Seville.
Era 577 (539 CE): Theodora (later the wife of King Leovigild) was born at Murcia to Severianus. Pope Vigilius wrote to Eleutherius of Caesaraugusta.
Era 578 (540 CE): Sanctina the mother of Severianus died at Toledo after the building of a monastery dedicated to Saint Peter Radinensis for the monks whom Benedict first sent into Spain. She was buried in the same monastery.
Era 579 (541 CE): Magnus was elected the bishop of the Mediolanum by the Goths after Dacius was driven out.
Era 580 (542 CE): Theudius the king of the Visigoths was unworthily killed. Theudiselus was put in place of him.
Era 581 (543 CE): Bacauda headed the seat of Toledo for 16 years after Julianus.
Era 582 (544 CE): Agila ruled the Visitohs, while Vincentius succeeded Eleutherius the bishop of Caesaraugusta.
Era 583 (545 CE): Toledan synod under Bacauda.
Era 584 (546 CE): Universal synod of Constantinople.[xiii]
Era 587 (549 CE): Near the town of Osset in Lusitania, in the diocese of Pacis Augusta fountains sprung up by divine intervention under Ilderic.
Era 588 (550 CE): Pope Vigilius wrote back to Profuturus the bishop of Braga.
Era 589 (551 CE): Crispinus the bishop of Seville flourished.
Era 590 (552 CE): Athanagild rebelled against Agila.
Era 591 (553 CE): Following the destruction of New Carthage[xiv] again, and following the devastation of its countryside, Severianus was sent to Seville in exile, while his daughter Florentina was born before.
Era 592 (554 CE): Fulgentius was born in Seville. Saint Saturius died in Cantabria leading a hermit’s life. King Athanagild built a monastery on the plain of the Toledan suburb (of the order of Saint Benedict) in honour of Saint Julian who died at Arverni It was called Agaliensian (per the nearby little village of Agalia, which is less than 150 steps away from the praetorian church of Saints Peter and Paul, situated to the northwest) and there he established the first abbot, the holy man Euphemius, who was later summoned to the first seat at Toledo.
Era 593 (555 CE): Saint Aemilianus the monk and presbyter died in Cantabria. The monastery of Cisla at Toledo (of the order of Saint Augustine) was built by Athanagild.
Era 594 (556 CE): Hermenegild was born to Leovigild from Theodora. Isidore was born in Seville. Euphemius succeeded Selva the bishop of Tarraco.
Era 595 (557 CE): In Gothic Gaul, a mountain bellowed for many days.
Era 596 (558 CE): Theodemir was made king of the Suevi in Galicia.
Era 597 (559 CE): Petrus was put in charge in succession to Bacauda and presided over the Toledan church for 12 years. Recared was born in Seville. Leander became a monk.
Era 598 (560 CE): Severianus died in Seville. Joannes the monk set out to Constantinople from the Agaliensian monastery for the sake of studies.
Era 599 (561 CE): The synod of Braga was held in the third year of King Theodemir: present were Lucretius the metropolitan bishop and the bishops Ilderic the Pacensian, Andreas the Iriensian, Sauncius the Lamacensian, Martinus the Dumiensian, Timothy the Asturian, Chotus the Empuritanian, Malilus the Tudensian.
Era 600 (562 CE): Theodora, whose cognomen was Cervilia, died at Seville. She was the very distinguished wife of Severianus. The Lombards under their king Alboinus invaded Italy. Dracontius the poet of Complutum flourished.
Era 601 (563 CE): Leovigild the duke of King Athanagild devastated the regions of Vatestana and Malaga.
Era 602 (564 CE): David succeeded Stephanus the bishop of Seville.
Era 603 (565 CE): Alboinus the king of the Lombards was killed at Verona. Dracontius the poet died at Caesaraugusta.
Era 604 (566 CE): Leovigild, who was later king of the Goths, fought outstandingly against the Constutoneni. Fidelis succeeded Paulis the bishop of Mérida.
Era 605 (567 CE): Theodora the wife of Leovigild died at Toledo, and was buried at Saint Leocadia. The image of the Crucified, struck by a certain Jew at Toledo, flowed with blood by divine intervention. All the royal city reported the wondrous news of it, and Petrus the bishop of Toledo was amazed.
Era 606 (568 CE): Leovigild married Gosuintha the widow of Athanagild. Leander the abbot was made presbyter by David the bishop.
Era 607 (569 CE): Martinus of Duma, now bishop of Braga, was in charge in the Lucensian council. The Lucensian seat became metropolitan.
Era 608 (570 CE): Saint Massona bishop of Mérida succeeded Fidelis.
Era 609 (571 CE): Euphemius, previously Agaliensian abbot, was put in charge in succession to Peter the bishop of Toledo. He was succeeded by Exsuperius in control of the monastery. At Caesaraugusta the holy temple of the Mother of God built by Saint James, which is called ad Columnam, was considered renowned. The synod of Braga under Martinus the metropolitan bishop.
Era 610 (572 CE): Leovigild sent Agila the count of the patrimonies to Queen Brachildis so that he should plead with her to give Ingundis her daughter to Hermengild as a wife. As the matter was deferred for seven years on the grounds she was not yet mature for a husband, he returned to Spain. After Didymus, Sanctinus followed in the seat of Tiraso, and he was followed by Saint Prudentius.
Era 611 (573 CE): Leovigild made Hermenegild and Recared the successor sons of his kingdom.
Era 612 (574 CE): Severus the bishop of Malaga bravely fought against Vincentius the heretical bishop of Caesaraugusta through publication of books.
Era 613 (575 CE): Saint Donatus, who first brought the rather enriched rule of the hermits of Saint Augustine to Spain, died ennobled with miracles while he lived in the Servitanian field. He migrated to heaven on the fourth day before the Ides of October.[xv]
Era 614 (576 CE): Pope Benedict wrote to David the bishop of Seville. After the same David died, Leander the Benedictine monk, the son of Duke Severianus, headed the church of Seville.
Era 615 (577 CE): Following the rise of the error that claimed there were no spirits, Epiphanius of the church of Toledo wrote to the bishops Licinianus and Severus, who responded to him.
Era 616 (578 CE): Joannes the abbot, who was later the Bilcarensian, was in exile in Barcelona because of his faith in the year after he returned from Constantinople. Leovigild built the city of Recopolis, which was later called Haurris, at the confluence of the rivers Tagus and Gudiela, in the territory of Celtiberia. Euphemius, the orator of Toledo was sent into Gaul with many of the palatine men accompanying. Massona returned from exile by the advice of Saint Eulalia.
Era 617 (579 CE): Ingundis, the daughter of the Sigibert and Brunchildis the monarchs of Francia, a very beautiful virgin, aged 16, was led from Francia to Spain, accompanied by Euphemius the metropolitan bishop and many of the palatine men of Spain and Francia, as well as the bishops (namely, Fortunatus of Pictavia, Salvinus of Abiga, Frontinianus of Aqua, Peltranus of Burdegala, and Gregorius of Turo. In the presence of these men, she married Hermenegild at the beginning of the year in the temple of Holy Mary at Toledo.
Era 618 (580 CE): Leovigild besieged his son Hermenegild at Seville. This man was handed over to his father by the betrayal of the Arians. Through the intervention of certain palatine men, after the dreadful custody of prison (having previously been defeated at Seville and bound in chains), he was let go following the giving of hostages. Previously nonetheless these places had rebelled against Leovigild: Seville, Cordoba, Astigis, New Carthage, Murcia, as well as Illigartum, Illuct (which is Oriola), Toledo, Complutum, Delavora, Aqua-Carpetana and other cities, which later obeyed the king.
Era 619 (581 CE): Leovigild besieged Hermenegild at Osset the town of Lusitania, and he led him captive to Toledo, and there he confined him to prison. There a synod took place, in which Paschasius the bishop of the Toledan church presided at the church of Saint Eulalia. Also gathered Vincentius of Caesaraugusta, Evepotius of Mérida (the bishop), Ugnus of Barcelona, Murila of Valencia, Valentine Wigiciseus, Argiduntus of Portugal, Gardingus of Tuy, and others. The Catholic bishops were sent into exile. Leander of Seville and Licinianus of Carthage- the metropolitan bishops- made for Constantinople, while Massona of Mérida made for Complutum, Euphemius of Toledo and Joannes the Biclarensian abbot for Barcelona, Monitus of Complutum for Caesaraugusta, and others elsewhere.
Era 620 (582 CE): Leovigild gave Ibada a most distinguished woman of the Gothic people- the daughter of Fonsa the count of the patrimonies- to Recared. From her he begat Suinthila. Froucistus the Oxomensian bishop flourished.
Era 621 (583 CE): Leovigild besieged his son at Seville again. A son was born to Recared at Toledo from Florisinda a Spanish woman of obscure condition. The son was called Liuva, whom Massona the bishop baptised. A plague befell Span.
Era 622 (584 CE): Leovigild gathered an army against his son. He called King Miro of the Suevi to help him. Arthuagus, whose cognomen was Gothus (of the order of Saint Augustine) flourished. Simplicius the Catholic bishop succeeded Vincentius the heretic of Caesaraugusta.
Era 623 (585 CE): Saint Martinus the metropolitan bishop of Braga, who has filled out his days and was renowned for the miracles of good works, migrated to the Lord.
Era 624 (586 CE): Hermenegild slipped away from Seville, and after being captured a Cordoba, he became an exile in Valencia, while his father pursued him with his army. Not much later he was sent to Tarraco, where he was confined with the greatest restriction to the custody of prison. He was visited by Euphemius the metropolitan bishop of Tarraco. On the Easter vigil, he was killed by Sibertus the first spatharius[xvi] on the order of his heretical father, on the grounds that he had not wanted to accept communion from the hand of Paschasius the heretical bishop of Toledo. As a martyr he was ennobled with miracles. Euphemius of Tarraco and the Catholics grieved over him and on the following night they forcefully took him away and buried him with mourning in their church. As for Ingundis his wife, she first was carried away to Africa and then to Sicily following the killing of her husband. Her son Theoderic was taken away from her and brought to Constantinople. She died at Panhormis.
Era 625 (587 CE): Massona in exile heavily grieved the untimely death of the martyr Hermenegild. Leander vehemently grieved at Constantinople after he saw the infant Theoderic. King Leovigild became gravely ill at Toledo as he returned from the war against the Suevi. The Toledans welcomingly received Recared as he returned as victor from Francia. Leovigild truly repented of his sins as his illness grew grave, and having embraced the Catholic religion he rested in peace, and he was buried at Toledo in the temple of Holy Mary. As he was on the verge of death, he commended in his testament himself, Recared and the kingdom to Massona and Leander the very holy bishops. I was present at his death since I was archdeacon with my lord Simplicius the bishop. He died on the first of April.
Era 626 (588 CE): Theodoric the child son of Hermenegild died at Constantinople. Sisebert the killer of the martyr Hermenegild was condemned by order of King Recared (who was now decorated with the insignia of rule) to public punishment in Toledo on account of the grave crime he committed. He paid the penalty for parricide and other crimes in a most disgraceful death. Leander, Massona, Euphemius and others were recalled from exile on the eighth day before the Ides of September.[xvii] Licinianus the metropolitan bishop died at Constantinople through poisoning. His place was taken by Dominicus formerly a presbyter of Seville: the latter was very old and renowned for merits and holiness. He was a signatory to the council of Toledo, where the Arian heresy was damned. Around the beginning of the year, communion was made with the bishops, as well as the Arian palatine men so that they should return to the Catholic faith. Then the church of Holy Mary at Toledo was restored and consecrated in the presence of the metropolitan bishops. In the same place King Recared was consecrated and anointed by Massona, and crowned by Euphemius and Leander, the metropolitan bishops of Toledo and Seville.
Era 627 (589 CE): Severus the bishop of Malaga, a pious and learned man, died as the year began. Queen Gosuintha was arrested, and convicted of treason, she was executed by hanging at Toledo, on 24th November. Euphemius the bishop of Tarraco flourished on account of his reputation for holiness and doctrine.
Era 628 (590 CE): On the eighth day before the Ides of May,[xviii] a great synod of 27 bishops of Spain, Gaul and Galicia was brought together at Toledo in the temple of Holy Mary. Among these men were eight metropolitan bishops: Massona of Mérida, Euphemius of Carpeta, Leander of Seville, Nigecius of Narbonne, Nitigesius of Luca through the procurator Pantardus, Pantardus of Braga, Euphemius of Tarraco and Dominicus of Carthago Spartaria.[xix] Leander held the meeting. The same man, along with Eutropius the Servitanian abbot, took care of matters pertaining to the council. In addition, King Recared, Queen Badda, the abbots Eutropius of Servitanum, Exsuperantius of Agala, and Aurantius of saints Cosma and Damianus (who were later bishops of Toledo), Maximus the abbot of Caesaraugusta of Sanctae Massae and Emila of Saint Eulalia of Barcelona (who was later bishop of the same city), Elias the abbot of Saint Leocadia at Toledo (later bishop of Salamanca), Terechristus the abbot of Saint Eulalia of Toledo (all these men from the order of Saint Benedict), also Fulgentius the presbyter, Maximus the archdeacon of Caesaraugusta, Eugenius the deacon of Toledo, Isidore the deacon of Seville, Joannes the Agaliensian abbot monk, later Biclarensian. Among the palatine men, Helafius the very illustrious count of the kings court, and the count of public affairs, Fonsa the count of the patrimonies, the king’s father-in-law, Afrila the comes spatharius,[xx] and leader (who was later king), Claudius the comes limitaneus[xxi] and duke, Witercus the count of the stable (and this man, also became king), Arginund the count of the bedroom, Gusinus Flavius, Avila, Ataulph, Liuva, Odoacer, Gudita the count of Toledo, Ophilo the count of Seville, Ataulph the count of Cordoba, from whom many Catholics. The synod was held on Tuesday, 8th May, on the day of Saint Michael the archangel, which was later considered very renowned in subsequent years for the Goths. Leander celebrated the solemnities of masses. There after the reading of the Gospel, the Arian heresy, which the Goths had privately renounced, was publicly renounced by the consensus of the king, queen, clergy, procurators and public. The king and queen sat on a high throne. To the right were the bishops in their order, and after the bishops stood the presbyters, and then the deacons. To the left were all the palatine men in the aforementioned order.
Era 629 (591 CE): The Christian faith and religion flourished in Spain. Dominicus the bishop of Carthage in Spain sought help from King Recared by sending a letter to him. He received Fulgentius the presbyter of Seville.
Era 630 (592 CE): Fulgentius, the brother of Leander the bishop of Seville, succeeded Saint Dominicus the bishop of Carthago Spartaria.
Era 631 (593 CE): Joannes the former Biclrensian abbot succeeded Aliius in the seat of Gerona. Badda the Catholic queen and wife of the Catholic king Recared, died at Toledo. She was buried in the temple of Holy Mary.
Era 632 (594 CE): Exsuperius the former Agaliensian abbot succeeded Euphemius the bishop of Toledo. Aurasius took over management of the monastery.
Era 633 (595 CE): After Exsuperius died, he was succeeded by (Adelphius, or) Aurasius the Agaliensian abbot. Adelphius the Aurasian abbot took over the same monastery.
Era 634 (596 CE): Maximus, who also wrote this chronicle, succeeded Simplicius of Caesaraugusta.
Era 635 (597 CE): Helladius the guide of public affairs became the Agaliensian monk.
Era 636 (598 CE): King Recared married Gossintha from the blood of the kings of Gaul. She was accompanied by Adelphius the bishop and others.
Era 637 (599 CE): Recared successfully ruled the state. He sent gifts to Rome through Adelphius and Tonitius the Agaliensian abbots of Saints Cosma and Damianus.
Era 638 (600 CE): Recared, on the urging of Adelphius the bishop of Toledo, repaired through royal expenditure the monastery of Saints Cosma and Damianus (located to the north, two miles away from Toledo) that had almost collapsed through the floodings of the rivers. Conantius succeeded Adelphius in the Toledan seat.
Era 639 (601 CE): Leander, renowned for miracles, departed from this life, succeeded by his brother Isidore.[xxii] Conantius was succeeded by Aurasius in the Toledan seat.
Era 640 (602 CE): The Catholic king Recared, after accepting penance, died at Toledo. He was buried in the temple of Holy Mary. Liuva was crowned and anointed by Aurasius of Toledo in the same place with flourishing age. He administered the sacraments to Recared. Fulgentius, formerly of Carthage,[xxiii] became the Astigitanian bishop, so that the sedition that arose should be calmed.
Era 641 (603 CE): On 14th April, King Liuva having been treacherously killed by Witeric, was buried in the temple of Holy Mary with tears. The latter drove him to Complutum.
Era 642 (604 CE): Witeric was anointed and crowned by Aurasius the bishop of Toledo. Flavius Sisebut became count of the public affairs.
Era 643 (605 CE): Fulgentius was succeeded by Vincentius (who held at one point the seat in Carthage, then in Murtia, that is Vigastrum) in the Carthaginian temple. Witeric tried to stir up heresy. Saint Massona the bishop of Mérida died at Mérida on 1 November, and was buried in the temple of the holy church.
Era 644 (606 CE): Helladius was made the Agaliensian monk, after Reguila the first Agaliensian abbot died. The Catholics fought…[xxiv]Witeric, per the entreaties of certain people, built a monastery (of the order of Saint Benedict) placed on the Tagus on an elevated place in honour of the holy martyrs Peter and Felix and the holy Cross. Egila was put in charge of it as the first abbot.
[i] A renowned late Western Roman general, who most notably held back the Hunnic invasion of Gaul.
[ii] Count Boniface of Africa.
[iii] Valentinian III (Western Roman emperor) and Marcian (Eastern Roman emperor).
[iv] The mother of Valentinian III.
[v] A region of southern Iberia.
[vi] A Germanic people who established a realm in western Iberia and were eventually subdued by the Visigoths.
[vii] A region of southwest Iberia.
[viii] Romulus Augustus’ rule as last Western Roman emperor is dated 475-476 CE.
[ix] A Germanic people who established their kingdom in Italy following the end of the Western Roman Empire.
[x] Byzantine general who most notably ended the Vandal kingdom in North Africa and imposed Byzantine authority there.
[xi] A supposed gap in the text follows this entry.
[xii] 4th April.
[xiii] A supposed gap in the text follows this entry.
[xv] 12th October.
[xvi] Head of a bodyguard unit for the king.
[xvii] 6th September.
[xviii] 8th May.
[xx] Head of bodyguard unit.
[xxi] Presumably an official responsible for borders.
[xxii] The renowned bishop and historian Isidore of Seville.
[xxiii] Cartagena and not Carthage in Africa.
[xxiv] A supposed gap in the text.