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The Chronicle of the Emperor Alfonso (Part Two)
Alfonso VII's Wars with the Almoravids
Whereas the first part of the prose chronicle of the Emperor Alfonso focused primarily on his relations with other Christian rulers and figures of power in Iberia, the second part concentrates on his conflicts with the Muslim powers in Iberia, primarily represented at that time by the Berber Almoravids, who had eliminated the main ṭāʾifa kingdoms that had arisen out of the decline and fall of the Umayyad caliphate at Cordoba. The chronicle continues up to the time of the final collapse of the Almoravids in Iberia and North Africa, being replaced by the Almohads (another Berber dynasty).
The Muslim forces receive a variety of designations in this part of the work: the author distinguishes the “Moabites” (Berber Almoravids) from their rivals the Almohads, who are generally dubbed the “Muzmuti” but also called the “Assyrians” on two occasions. The Berber Almoravids and Almohads more generally are distinguished from the “Hagarenes” (the Spanish Arabs or Spanish Muslims more generally). Sometimes also we see the term “Arabs” used to refer to some Muslims as opposed to the Berbers. The Muslims more generally (regardless of their ethnicity) receive the designation of the “Saracens” (derived from a supposed false Arab claim of descent from Abraham’s wife Sarah) and more derisively, the “pagans.”
Despite the Muslims’ supposed pagan status and the author’s clear hostility to Islam and Muslims (at one point, the author notes how a reconquered city is “cleansed” of the “filth” of the “pagans”), we also learn of Muslims living under the rule of the Emperor Alfonso, most notably a community in the city of Toledo, which allegedly participated in celebrations of Alfonso’s triumph. Muslims living under Christian rule in parts of Iberia were known as “Mudéjares” and were afforded some kind of toleration similar to the imposition of the dhimmi status on Christians living under Muslim rule.
Below is a full translation of the second part of the chronicle with annotations, focusing primarily on the Biblical references and explaining words of Arabic origin.
Here begins the second book of the history of Emperor Alfonso concerning the dissensions and battles that he, the Toledan princes and the dukes of Extremadura waged against King Ali,[i] his son Tashfin[ii] and the other kings and princes of the Moabites and Hagarenes
1. Passing over the natural order, let us come and discuss those matters that were once very harsh wars for the Christians
After the death of King Lord Alfonso, the father of Queen Urraca (Emperor Alfonso’s mother), Ali, the greatest of the Saracens, who dominated the Moabites as king of the Moroccans and the Hagarenes on this side of the sea[iii] far and wide and many others as well as the islands and nations of the sea, reared his head like a serpent thirsty because of the heat. As though he intended to triumph everywhere after the death of the greatest man, he summoned all the princes, dukes and soldiers of the Moabites and a great army of mercenaries of the Arabs and many thousands of soldiers, crossbowmen and great throngs of infantry like sand that is on the seashore. After holding counsel, he gathered an army and after crossing the sea he came to Seville and with him was his son Tashfin. He ordered each of the kings, princes and dukes of the Moabites, who held supremacy over the Hagarenes, to prepare a column of soldiers, crossbowmen and infantry as far as he could, and to bring ladders, machines and large iron and wooden siege engines to wage war against the city of Toledo, to which he was hastening, and the other towns and cities that are beyond the Sierra.[iv]
2. He moved his camp from Seville and came in a few days to Cordoba and there all the peoples that were in the land of the Hagarenes gathered to him. They moved their camp from Cordoba and came through the land that belonged to Alvaro Fannicus,[v] and they captured fortified forts and cities, which they partly destroyed and partly fortified. Then they came to Toledo and destroyed Saint Servandus and Aceca, and then they approached the city and set up their machines in convenient places, and for a long time they assailed and attacked it with arrow, stone, lance, projectile and fire. But in the city was the strenuous duke of the Christians- Alvaro Fannicus- along with a great multitude of soldiers, archers, infantry and strong youth, who took positions over the city walls and fought in a manly manner above the towers and gates against the Saracens. Many thousands of Saracens were laid low there, hence also because of the Christians’ strength, they were put to flight and far removed from the city’s towers, such that they could do no harm to the city or those who were above the walls.
3. Seeing this, King Ali ordered his infantry to bring much wood of vineyards and trees and place them secretly by night at the base of a very strong tower that is located at the head of the bridge opposite Saint Servandus. In the middle of the night the Saracens began to light a very strong fire of pitch[vi] in the wood with ballistas and arrows, in order to burn the tower, but the Christians who were in the tower poured a lot of vinegar on the wood and the fire died. Together with lord Alvaro in the great city were a great throng of elders of great counsel and those who could discern in advance many things to come. The King Lord Alfonso had brought them there to guard the city, until a king should come from his own seed to liberate it from the assault of the Saracens.
4. Seeing this, King Ali was inflamed with great anger and on the following day at the crack of dawn, he ordered the princes of his military to set up great battle-lines of azecuti[vii] infantry with all their siege engines, followed by others consisting of Hagarenes, and behind them others consisting of Moabites and Arabs, bringing siege engines to the root of the city walls via convenient places. At the gate of Almaquara and everywhere else they put in place many ballistas and machines, projectiles of fire and engines to hurl stones and missiles as well as scorpions to fire arrows and slings, sheds and rams, with which they intended to sap the city’s walls, and ladders that they intended to place on the towers.
5. The Christians built machines to counter their machines and fought for seven days, bringing no harm to the city. On the seventh day, the Christian warriors bravely sallied out from the city through the gates at sunset, and as the azecuti and Hagarenes fled, they set fire to all the machines that they abandoned while fleeing, and to all the siege engines with which King Ali and his princes intended to sap the city walls. The city remained unharmed by the help of God.
6. While these wars were being waged, the archbishop of the Toledan church- lord Bernard- prostrated on the ground in the church of Saint Mary with the clerics, monks, elderly, women and poor, and they unanimously asked the Lord God and Saint Mary that the sins of the kings and peoples should not be remembered, lest they should be given to captivity and the sword, their women divided, their children taken as booty, their city destroyed, and God’s holy law[viii] disgraced, defiled and trampled down. The Lord God on high heard their prayers, pitied His people, and sent the archangel Michael to protect the city of Toledo and strengthen its walls so that they could not be broken, and to strengthen the minds of the fighting men and defend the bodies of the Christians. What happened could not have happened unless the Lord were protecting them, as David says: “Unless the Lord should guard this city, those who protect it keep watch in vain.”[ix]
7. When King Ali saw that the whole tide of the battle was turned against the Saracens and that his princes were perishing along with countless numbers of his people, he and his entire army retreated from the city, came to all the cities and forts that are beyond the Sierra, and took them by storm. Because of our sins, he broke the walls of Magerit, Talavera, Olms, Canales and many other places. He also took many captives, brought about much slaughter and took a lot of booty. But the aforementioned cities’ very well-fortified towers that are called alcaceres[x] in our language were not captured and many remnants of the Christians remained there. Guadalajara and other cities and forts remained unscathed and their walls were not broken, because the heavenly King, remembering His usual compassion, took revenge on the Saracens. For through sudden death and the Christians’ sword, that wicked people began to perish without intermission and attain nothing.
8. Seeing this, King Ali hurriedly returned to his city of Cordoba. While there, he summoned his son Tashfin and told him: “Receive all the realms of the Hagarenes and be king over all the kings, princes and dukes who are present from the Mediterranean Sea up to Toledo (the city of the Christians), and up to Santarém and from the other side up to Zaragoza, and from there up to Barcelona. Firstly, I order you, son, to destroy Toledo by the sword, and then its other cities and forts up to the River Duero, because the Toledans despised me and prepared for war against me. But send across the sea any Christian fighters, slaves, boys and noble women and girls you capture.” After this, King Ali went to Seville, and from there he went across the sea to his city called Morocco in the land of the Moabites. He brought with him all the Christians he took captive, and he brought with him to Morocco all the male and female captives he could find in the entire land of the Hagarenes.
9. There was a nobleman in King Ali’s household called Alimemon.[xi] He was a brave and wise sailor, who was in charge of all the men of this ministry in his country. When this man recognised the opportune time, he took up a large multitude of ships and sailed across the Ocean against Galicia and across the Britannic sea and the Mediterranean Sea against the regions of Ashkelon and the regions of the people of Constantinople, Sicily, the city of Bari and other coastal cities, and against the region of Barcelona and all the realms of the Franks. As he did so, he launched assaults and brought about devastation, and inflicted much carnage and many massacres upon the Christians. He brought to the palace of his lord king Ali those he captured throughout each of the cities and towns. There was a very large multitude of Christian nobles and ignobles of both sexes (male and female) in King Ali’s palace.
10. In that time God granted grace to the captives, who were in the royal place of their lord King Ali, and his heart turned towards doing good to the Christians, and he loved them above all the men of his eastern people, for he made some his bed chamberlains, and others his millenarii, quingenarii and centenarii,[xii] who were in charge of his kingdom’s military. He decreed gold and silver, cities and very well fortified forts for them, with which they could have supplies to wage battles against the Muzmuti and the king of the Assyrians called Abdelnomen,[xiii] who was assaulting his regions without intermission.
11. Among King Ali’s captives was found a noble decurion[xiv] from Barcelona called Reverter, a just, simple and God-fearing man. The king put this man in charge of the captive Christian soldiers and barbarians so that he should be commander of all his wars, because he had never been beaten in war. Thus in all the days of the life of King Ali, all royal wars were managed through his hands and counsel. King Ali grew old and was buried alongside his forefathers in his grand old age, and his son Tashfin ruled on his behalf and did good to the Christians for all the days of his life, just like his father King Ali.
12. When Aurelia was captured by the kings of the Moabites
It came to pass in the days of Queen Mistress Urraca that the king of Seville, the king of Cordoba and the Moabites’ other kings and princes who were in the Hagarenes’ land, gathered a large multitude of soldiers, infantry and crossbowmen, and came to the land of Toledo. Through fighting, they captured the fort called Aurelia, and they brought about a great massacre of Christians and took others captive. They took another fort called Zurita, and strongly fortified it with soldiers, infantry, sustenance, many arms and ballistas. Then they returned to their own land.
13. During the same period of time, Cauria was handed over to the Saracens by wicked men who were said to be Christians but were in fact not so. They also took another fort in Extremaduria called Alvalat, and they fortified Cauria and Alvalat with a large multitude of soldiers and infantry, who assailed all of Extremadura up to the River Duero on a daily basis. Those who were in Aurelia assailed Toledo and the other cities beyond the Sierra each day, bringing about many massacres and taking much booty.
14. After some years, King Tashfin gathered his whole army again and came to Toledo. The Christians did not remain unaware of his arrival. Hence they also fortified the city. King Tashfin and all his army crossed the river called the Tagus, and went away to the fort called Aceca. It had been populated again by Tellus Fernandus, a duke of Saldania, and by other Christians. They assailed it from midnight to sunset and the fort was broken and captured. They utterly destroyed it and all the Christians (around 300 warriors) perished by the sword. Their duke Tellus Ferdnandus was taken captive along with many other captives, and they brought him with them to the great city of Cordoba and he was brought across the sea from Cordoba to the home of King Ali, and he did not return to the land of his birth again.
15. In those days there was a duke called Farax[xv] in Calatrava.[xvi] He was a guide[xvii] from the tribe of the Hagarenes. In Saint Stephan there was another called Ali, from the tribe of the Moabites. These two princes brought about a great war and great massacres in the land of Toledo and gathered all the soldiers of the Moabites and the Hagarenes, who were in Aurelia and all the cities and forts up to the river called the Guadalquivir. Those gathered came together secretly by night in the territory of the cities of the Toledans and in a hidden place they set up ambushes called celatas in our language. Guterrius Hermegildus (the qāʾid of Toledo), who was in Alfamim, was unaware of this.
16. On the next day at the crack of dawn a few soldiers of the Moabites came to the plain, moved a few cattle and seemingly began to flee. Guterrius Hermegildus pursued them with 40 soldiers and came to the place where the trap had been prepared. Seeing this, the ambush forces that were hidden suddenly emerged and fought with Guterrius Hermegildus and his soldiers, and the battle became very intense. Guterrius Hermegildus fell in battle, as did the vast majority of the soldiers who were with him.
17. A Toledan soldier called Munio Alfonso, who had been born in Galicia and was the qāʾid of Mora, was taken captive with other Christian soldiers in the aforementioned battle and was brought to Cordoba. They sent him to prison and afflicted him with hunger and thirst. Many days later, he gave much gold and silver as well as mules, horses and many arms on his behalf. Redeeming himself, he came to Toledo, and then to his fort called Mora. This man later waged many battles in the land of the Moabites and Hagarenes and killed their wondrous kings and dukes, as has been written in this book.
18. Again the aforementioned dukes of the Saracens came to the Toledan cities and fought with the two brothers (namely, Dominic Alvarez and Diaz Alvarez) who were the qāʾids of Escalona, and with the many Christian soldiers of the other cities. Because of our sins, the Christians were defeated and the aforementioned qāʾids of Escalona perished by the sword with many Christians. On another occasion, they killed Roderic Gundisalvus, a strenuous soldier of the land of Leon, who had been in Toledo with other soldiers to help the Christians. Again they fought with Ferdinand Fernandez, the qāʾid of Fita, and he was defeated and perished, as did many others with him.
19. In that same period of time in which the aforementioned wars arose, the sword and flame of King Alfonso of Aragon assailed all of Castile and a great part of the land of Leon. The sons of the foreigners were in Castrojeriz, Ferrera, Castrellum, the fort of Burgos, Saint Stephan of Gormaz, Villafranca, Belfurado, Grannon, Najera, and many other forts, against the emperor and his faithful subjects waged war on a daily basis. The emperor was not helped wholly from the heart by Count Peter Lara, nor by his brother Roderic Gundisalvus, nor by Count Gundisalvus Pelagius of Oviedo. Peter Diaz was a rebel in Valle and Sammenus Ennequicus in Coyanca. Under their lips were toil and grief, and they had a conversation with King Alfonso, the king of Aragon. Thus they perished badly, as has been written above.[xviii]
20. Once the war of the king of Aragon was finished, the other war of King García of Pamplona and Alfonso the king of Portugal arose. The latter was fighting against Galicia, as we have already said earlier. On account of these aforementioned wars the emperor did not go on an expedition in the land of the Saracens and thus the Saracens prevailed in the land of the Christians. The Saracens’ fortitude and very strong power prevailed until Emperor Alfonso went to Xarez and took hold of Auricula and Coria. [xix]Although the Saracens were waging great wars, it was always the custom of the Christians who lived beyond the Sierra and in all of Extremadura to gather themselves into groups frequently each year. These groups sometimes constituted 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000 or more or fewer soldiers, and they would go into the land of the Moabites and Hagarenes and inflict many massacres and take many Saracens captive. They would also take much booty, set many fires and kill many kings and dukes of the Moabites and Hagarenes, and through waging war they would destroy forts and villages and do greater things than they would receive at the hands of the Saracens.
21. But King Tashfin, King Azuuel[xx] of Cordoba, King Avenceta[xxi] of Seville and the other kings, princes and dukes of the Moabites and Hagarenes gathered an army like sand that is around the seashore. They intended to come suddenly to the cities of Toledo and destroy them to nothingness and make a great name for themselves. Moving from Cordoba, they came a few days later to the plain of Lucenia and there they set up camp.
22. While they were there, it happened on the same day that 1000 elite soldiers from Avilia and Segobia, organised with strong weapons, came with a great throng of infantry via a path that leads to the countryside of Cordoba. While they were marching, they found out that King Tashfin and his camp were in the plain of Lucenia, and they shouted to the God of the heavens and earth and to Saint Mary and Saint James in prayer, imploring them to help and defend them. Once the divine counsel was held, they fixed their tents where they were, and divided their infantry in half, leaving half in the tents to guard their baggage. But the armed and well-organised soldiers and the other half of the infantry marched from midday and then around the fourth hour of the night suddenly attacked the very tents of King Tashfin, and a great disturbance arose in the camp.
23. A great multitude of Moabites and Hagarenes rushed to their arms and began to do battle and the battle became very intense. A great proportion of the Saracens fell and the rest fled hither and thither. King Tashfin himself was wounded in his thigh by lances. Mounting a horse, he fled without a saddle. The Christians took hold of their tents, royal standards, mules, camels, gold, silver and great riches, and they headed to their own tents. Then each of them headed back to his own city in Extremadura, praising and blessing God. King Tashfin returned to Cordoba in disgrace, and he was cared for by doctors, and several days later he recovered from his wounds. Nonetheless he was crippled for all the days of his life.
24. After the death of Guterrius Ermegildus, the leader of the Toledan military (as has been said earlier), the consul Roderic Gundisalvus found grace in the emperor’s sight and the emperor made him leader of the Toledan military and lord of all Extremadura. He gathered a large army of Castile and Extremadura, in addition to soldiers and infantry of Toledo and other cities that are subject to Toledo. He then went to the land of Seville and destroyed all that region and inflicted much carnage and fires, and had all the fruit-bearing trees cut, and he took great spoils form them and took a countless number of men, women and children captive, in addition to gold and silver, very precious garments in abundance, herds of horses, mares and asses, as well as oxen, cows and a countless number of all the livestock of the field.
25. Seeing this, the king of Seville summoned many thousands of Moabites, Arabs and Hagarenes from the islands of the sea and coastal areas, as well as neighbours, friends and many princes and dukes. He pursued the consul’s camp. But the consul did not remain unaware of this, and the consul moved his army from the camp, and they stood their ground to confront the Saracens. The Christians’ infantry were divided into two battle-lines, and with them were the archers and slingers and all the powerful chief warriors[xxii]: thus the battle-line of Avilia’s soldiers was opposite the Arabs’ battle-line, while the second battle-line of Segovia was opposite the battle-lines of the Moabites and the Hagarenes. But the consul stood in the rear-guard of the Toledan military and the forces from across the Sierra and Castile, so that he could help those weak at heart and console the wounded.
26. Once the struggle was initiated, the Saracens shouted with bronze trumpets, tambourines and voices and invoked Muhammad. The Christians shouted with all their heart to the Lord God, blessed Mary and Saint James, asking them to have mercy on them and forget the sins of their kings, their own sins and those of their parents. Many wounded well from both sides. Eventually, the consul saw that the King of Seville’s part of their army was stronger, and all those steadfast in heart came together with the consul in the battle, and the king of Seville fell in the battle and died, and many princes and dukes fell with him, and all the battle-lines of the pagans were broken and fled. The consul pursued them up to the gates of Seville and took war-spoils and booty from them, and he began to return to his own camp.
27. At the same time, the optimates of Salamanca entered the land of Badajoz, saying to themselves when they saw the consul wanting to return to land of Seville: “Let us go into the land of Badajoz and make a great name for ourselves, and let us not give the name of our glory to any prince or duke.”[xxiii] Gathering a very large army, they went on the way that leads to Badajoz, and they devastated the entire region and inflicted great carnage and fires, and they took many men, women and children captive. They also took all the furniture of the homes and an abundant wealth of gold and silver. In addition, they took great riches, horses, mules, camels, assess, oxen, vows and all the livestock of the field.
28. While these things were happening, King Tashfin gathered an army like sand on the seashore, in order to fight with the consul Roderic. When he learned from a Saracen man who had fled from consul Roderic’s camp that the king of Seville and his nobles had died, he became afraid of going to confront him. He also learned from the aforementioned Saracen man that the Christians’ camp was in the region of Badajoz, and he followed them and placed his camp opposite the Christians’ camp, and on that day he did not do battle with them, because night was pressing on.
When the Christians saw this, they killed all their Saracen captives (both men and women), lest their camp should perhaps be disturbed by them through the taking of arms. King Tashfin ordered his interpreters to ask the Christians who was the prince or duke of their military. The Christians responded to them: “We are all princes and dukes of our own heads.” Hearing this, King Tashfin thought that they were irrational and without sense, and he greatly rejoiced and said to those standing around: “Know that their God has abandoned these irrational people.” When the many optimates of Salamanca saw what would happen, they withdrew from their camp and fled. When it was morning, a struggle commenced, and the Christians turned back and all their soldiers and infantry died, and only a few of them remained. They fled on horseback. The camp’s fortifications were captured and great ruin befell the Christians.[xxiv] King Tashfin took away all the Christians’ war spoils and returned victorious to his city of Cordoba.
29. But this affliction was not enough for the people of Salamanca, for in that year and the following years, there were three occasions in which they trusted in their strength and not in the Lord God, and thus they badly perished. After these events they repented of their sins and shouted to the Lord and gave tithes and first-fruits to God. God heard them and gave them prudence and audacity in waging war, and they were always in the land of the Moabites and the Hagarenes with Count Pontius and other dukes of the emperor, and they waged many battles and obtained triumph, and they took much booty from their land. The city of Salamanca became great and renowned for its soldiers and infantry, and also very rich.
30. In any case, the consul Roderic returned to Toledo without any impediment and with his whole army, praising and blessing the Lord, who saves those who have hope in Him.[xxv] As for the other battles that the consul Roderic waged with the kings of the Moabites and the Hagarenes, and their carnage, they have not been written down in this book. After these accomplishments, the consul Roderic became a pilgrim and went away across the sea to Jerusalem to pray, as we have written earlier.
31. Eventually the emperor gave Toledo and many cities and towns in Extremadura and Castile to Roderic Fernandez, who became leader of the Toledan military. Bringing together the army of Toledo and Castile as well as soldiers and infantry, he departed to the land of the Moabites and the Hagarenes and inflicted much carnage and fires and took many people captive. He also took gold, much silver, and very precious garments and all the livestock of the field. Every place their feet trampled remained devastated.
32. When King Tashfin heard reports about this, he became angry and summoned all his friends and the princes of his army as well as those who were on horses. Also forces from other realms, islands and coastal areas came to him, as well as a mercenary army from across the sea, along with great armies of Arab and Moabite soldiers. The number of soldiers, crossbowmen and infantry was countless. Suddenly he decided to destroy the Christians’ army and he went out to confront them at the place called Almont.
33. When the Toledan leader saw them, he said to the Christians: “Do not fear their multitude and do not be frightened of their charge. Remember how King Lord Alfonso and our forefathers captured Toledo and every realm up to the River Duero through waging war. Now let us shout to heaven and our God will have mercy on us, and God will wear them down before us today.”[xxvi] When the battle-lines of soldiers, infantry and crossbowmen were prepared on both sides, they did battle and many thousands of Saracens fell, and God was pleased. King Tashfin was beaten, and he and his entire army fled from the field. The Christians took much gold and silver as well as horses, mules, camels and great riches. They then turned around and came to Toledo, and they sang a hymn and blessed God, because He is good, for His mercy endures forever.[xxvii]
34. Again on a second occasion, Roderic Fernandus, the Toledan leader, brought together an army and went away to the land of the Moabites and Hagarenes. Their kings came out to confront him in the place called Serpia, and the leader of the Toledans emerged victorious and took great spoils from the Saracens and returned to Extremadura with great joy. Again for a third time the Toledan leader brought together his armies, and went away to the land of the enemies and inflicted much carnage and killed many Moabites and Hagarnees. For their kings brought together a great multitude of soldiers and infantry, and came to him at the place called Silvia, and once the struggle was initiated, the Moabites and Hagarenes turned back and many thousands of them fell, while the rest fled hither and thither. The Toledan leader emerged victorious in the field and the Christians took great spoils from them and returned to Toledo with great joy and delight, singing: “We praise you God, we profess you Lord” etc.
35. In that time there was a soldier in Extremadura called Gocelmus de Ribas, a valorous man. He was very rich in gold, silver, bread, wine and all the riches of this life. This soldier went away to the emperor and asked him to order him to rebuild the fort called Azeca. This was pleasing to the emperor. He and his children, his wife and sons-in-law and their wives, together with the Toledan leader and his great army, went away to Azeca. They pitched their camp at the foot of the fort that had been destroyed by King Tashfin when he took it from Tellus Fernandus. They built a fort and high walls and strong towers around it, so that when the Moabites and Hagarenes should come, they would not be able to conquer it as they did before. The aforementioned soldier brought many valorous soldiers and armed infantry with him there so that they should protect it, and as Toledo’s scout, he also fortified it with all provisions, so that the people of Toledo would have a protection facing Aurelia,[xxviii] where there were many Moabites and Hagarenes, who waged a great war in the land of Toledo and all Extremadura. They had a great battle with Farax the guide of Calatrava, and often they would prevail against those who were in Aurelia and retreat on other occasions.
36. In era 1176 and in the month of May[xxix]
Emperor Alfonso took Roderic Fernandus, the leader of the Toledan military who was very distinguished in war, as well as Count Roderic of the land of Leon and other men and princes of his household, and a large army of Extremadura. He went and set up camp next to the river called the Guadalquivir. Many plundering cohorts marched for many days over a long distance and plundered the whole land of Jaen, Baeza, Ubeda, Andújar and many other cities. They set fire to all the villages they found, destroyed their synagogues, and burned with fire the books of Muhammad's law. All the male teachers of the law who were found were butchered with sword. They had the vineyards, olive trees, fig trees and all the trees cut down and every place that their feet trampled remained devastated.[xxx] Many days later they returned to the emperor in the camp, bearing with them a great multitude of captives (men, women and children), gifts of gold and silver, very precious garments, all their riches, and all their furniture, as well as great flocks of horses, mares, oxen, cows, sheep and goats.
37. While these things were happening, some of the people of Extremadura crossed the river called the Guadalquivir without the order of the emperor and their princes. They went away to the land of the Saracens, took much booty, set fires and returned to the place where they had previously crossed the river, and because of laziness and the abundance of riches they had taken, they did not cross the river and remained there. In the middle of the night, a great inundation of rain fell and the water expanded excessively. So when it was morning, that people could not cross the river by swimming or any other means.
38. Since the emperor had foresight of these things that would happen, he set out from afar with his own military, lest he should see the death of his people. Around the third hour of the day, the people raised their eyes and saw large readied battle-lines of the Moabites and Hagarenes (soldiers and infantry) coming to destroy them. Terrified, they equally lost their boldness and know-how in waging war, and they shouted to the Toledan leader and Count Roderic, asking them to have pity on them. The princes responded to them: “You see that great chasm has been set in place between us and you. You will not be able to cross over to us, nor we can come to you.” The princes also said: “Confess each other’s sins and pray and share in the blessed bread you have with you, and God will pity your souls.”[xxxi]
39. Then the Christians, well-trained in faith and arms, killed all the Saracen captives they had captured (men, women and children), as well as the beasts they had with them. Then the people of the Saracens attacked them and all the Christians died, and none of them remained except a Christian soldier, who dived into the water and escaped across the river between the Christians. All the Christians and Saracens who saw that miracle were amazed. The Saracens took many heads of the Christians and their war spoils and then went away. After these things happened, the consuls moved their camp, came to the emperor and told him everything that had happened, and the emperor was saddened and came to Toledo, and each person went to his own land.
40. In the same year and in the month of July, the emperor summoned Count Roderic of Leon and the own military of his household as well as the men of Salamanca. He departed to Coria in order to take it by storm, and he placed ambushes at a distance from the walls. Then he sent plundering cohorts around Coria in order to seize the men, women and all the cattle of the plain, and this is exactly what they did. The Moabites and Hagarenes saw this and sallied forth in a manly manner through the city gates in order to pursue the Christians, who pretended to flee because of fear, whereas in fact they wished to draw them far away from the city. Once the places where the Christians had hidden were crossed, the emperor appeared in the plain, and the emerging ambush forces killed all the Moabites and Hagarenes as well as their dukes, and none of them remained.
41. Seeing this, those who had remained in the city shut the gates with its large and firm wall. Then the emperor ordered to place the camo around the city and sent messengers to all the land of Extremadura and the land of Leon, asking that both the soldiers and infantry should come to besiege the city, and whoever did not come would offend the emperor, and his household would be shamed. The city was besieged in such a way that no Saracen could enter or exit, because the dukes and princes of the Christians built very high wooden towers, which towered above the walls, as well as machines and sheds with which they could assail the city.
42. One day before sunrise, the emperor summoned his counts, princes and dukes and ordered them to apply the machines at the crack of dawn in order to assault the city. He went away to the mountainous areas with his hunters in order to kill deer, boars and bears. When it was morning, they began to assault the city and the consul Roderic Martinus climbed onto a wooden tower he had built, and with him were many soldiers, archers and slingers. Then a Saracen hurled an arrow by chance and directed it at the machine the consul had climbed. Alas, because of the consul’s sins, the arrow made a blow through the machine’s cover and resounded, and with the shaft left in the cover, the iron, devoid of its wood, struck the consul’s neck, penetrated his helmet and breastplate, and caused a wound.
43. After the consul realised he had been struck, he seized the iron with his hand with utmost haste and removed it from his wound. Blood immediately followed it, and the blood could not be held back on that day by any skill of enchanters or doctors. Eventually he said to those standing around: “Strip me of my arms, for I am strongly afflicted by this wound.” They immediately stripped him of his arms and brought him to his tent, and for the whole day they strove with utmost diligence to treat his wound until sunset, when the hope of medicine was taken away together with his life. As soon as this was found out in his camp, great wailing and howling arose, beyond the reckoning of all men. Hearing about this, the emperor returned from the mountain, and came to the camp after he learned what was happening from those he interrogated. Summoning his princes, he made the deceased’s brother Osorius consul in his place in the presence of all.
44. On the next day, the emperor saw that he was being weighed down by many misfortunes, and making concession to fortune, he retreated from the besieged city and all the optimates headed with him to Salamanca, while the rest safely returned to their own abodes. As for Count Osorius who (as has been said) was recently declared consul, and his own military and part of his deceased brother’s forces added on, they seized the consul Roderic’s body, and with great wailing intensified through each of the cities, they reached Leon and buried him with honours in the tomb of his parents next to the basilica of Saint Mary, where there is the bishop’s seat.
45. After this, King Tashfin went away across the sea to the home of his father King Ali in the city called Morocco.[xxxii] He brought with him many Christians, whom they call Mozarabs[xxxiii] and who lived from olden times in the land of the Hagarenes. Thus he brought with him all the captives whom he found in every land that was under his dominion, and he placed them in the cities and forts with the other Christian captives to oppose those peoples they call the Muzmoti, who assailed all the land of the Moabites.
46. Some years later, King Azuel of Cordoba, King Avenzeta of Seville and the other kings and princes gathered a great multitude of soldiers and infantry that was in the land of the Hagarenes. They came again to the Toledan cities and brought about much carnage and many evils in Escalona and Alfamim, and through Munio Alfonso’s negligence, they took the fort called Mora. It was negligence I say, because he did not have it fortified with men and provisions as was appropriate, and thus it was captured by the Saracens and they fortified it with brave men and provisions.
47. When the army of the Moabites and Hagarenes came to the land of Toledo or its cities, they did not stay there except to wage war for a day and night, and immediately afterwards they returned to their own land because they feared the emperor and because of the warriors who inhabited Avilia, Segovia and all of Extremadura, and thus they returned without waging war.
48. When the emperor heard that Mora had been captured, he departed to that place and built another fort called Penna Nigra opposite Mora. It was better and stronger and he fortified it with soldiers and infantry who were very valorous. He also fortified it with provisions and gave it to a prince whose name was Martinus Fernandus, who waged war against those who in Mora on a daily basis, until the emperor captured it. But after the Saracens captured Mora, Munio Alfonso was ashamed and for many days he did not dare to come before the emperor, but undertook great risks with friends of his who were warriors from Toledo, Guadalajara, Talavera, Magariz, Avilia, Segovia and the other cities. He did not cease to make war in the land of the Moabites and the Hagarenes on a daily basis. He inflicted great massacres and fires, took booty and fought with many princes and dukes of the Moabites and Hagarenes. He defeated and killed them and took spoils from them.
49. When the emperor saw that Munio Alfonso was a valorous man, he ordered the latter to come before him and gave his thanks to him and made him second prince: i.e. the second qāʾid of Toledo. He ordered all the soldiers and infantry who dwelled in all the cities and forts that are across the Sierra to obey him. Similarly also, all the warrior men of all of Extremadura had come to know his goodness and military skill because of the many battles they waged with him in the land of the Saracens, and thus they obeyed him. But the Moabites and Hagarenes in Aurelia brought about great destruction upon Toledo and all its cities.
50. When the emperor ordered the qāʾid of Toledo Roderic Fernandus and his brother lord Guterrius to besiege Aurelia
In the thirteenth year of the rule of Emperor Alfonso, the emperor saw that the Lord had given him rest on all sides from all his enemies.[xxxiv] After holding a counsel with his own advisors, he ordered his two princes (namely, Guterrius Fernandus and his brother Roderic Fernandus, who was the greatest among the qāʾids of Toledo) to besiege the fort called Aurelia with their own armies, all the soldiers and infantry who were in Toledo and all the cities across the Sierra, and all the inhabitants of all of Extremadura. The fort was besieged in the month of April.
51. Then the emperor gathered the military forces of all of Galicia, the land of Leon, Castile and great throngs of infantry, and he went to Aurelia. The fort was surrounded with great fortifications. But within the fort’s fortification was the earlier mentioned duke called Ali, the killer of the Christians and the dukes who were killed across the Sierra. He had a great throng of infantry, crossbowmen and soldiers of the Moabites and Hagarenes. The fort was very firm and well-fortified with all arms and ballistas. The emperor ordered his craftsmen to construct machines and many siege engines with which they could assail the fort. He ordered for guards to be placed throughout the river-bank, in order to destroy them through thirst. He also ordered for a shed to be placed above a place where the Saracens were secretly drawing water.
52. When King Azuel of Cordoba, Avenzeta the king of Seville, and Avengania the prince of the Valencian military heard this, they were saddened and very troubled. They summoned the other kings, princes and dukes and all the military and all the infantry who were in all the land of the Hagarenes, as well as a great multitude from the islands of the sea. To help them, another great army of Moabites and Arabs came, sent to them by King Tashfin of Morocco. Added to them were large throngs of infantry called azecuti who followed the great throngs of camels loaded with flour and all sorts of food that could be eaten.[xxxv] The number of soldiers was around 30,000, while the number of infantry and crossbowmen could not be counted.
53. Moving their camp from Cordoba, they began to go through the royal path that leads to Toledo, and they reached the wells of Algodor and there they set up camp. They also put in place large hidden ambushes, with whom were Avengania the king of Valencia and his military. They gave orders to these forces and said: “If the emperor confronts us for war, you come from the other side upon the camp and kill all the warrior men at the edge of the sword, and burn their camp with flames and fortify the fort with soldiers, infantry, arms and all foods that can be eaten and are with us on our camels, as well as water. Then follow us, where you will know we are. We will go to Toledo and there we will see the emperor for war.”
54. The emperor’s scouts came to him in the camp and told him the Saracens’ plans and deeds in the sight of all his magnates, princes and dukes. Holding divine counsel, he decided for the fort to be destroyed so that they would not go out to fight against the Christians, but rather wait for them in the camp.[xxxvi] A very large army of Moabites and Hagarenes came to Toledo and launched an assault against Saint Servandus, but the very lofty towers were not harmed. Nonetheless they destroyed one tower that stood opposite Saint Servantus, and in it perished four Christian souls. Many of them went away to Azeca, but they wrought no evil there.
55. Then they began to destroy the vineyards and trees, but in the city was the Empress Mistress Berengaria with a large throng of soldiers, crossbowmen and infantry, who were positioned above the gates, towers and walls of the city and were guarding it. Seeing this, the empress sent messengers to the kings of the Moabites. They said to the kings: “The empress, the emperor’s wife, says this to you: surely you see that you are fighting against me, who am a woman, and it is not honourable for you? But if you wish to fight, go to Aurelia and fight with the emperor, who is awaiting you with his armed and readied battle-lines.”
Hearing this, the kings, princes, dukes and all the army raised their eyes and saw the empress sitting on a royal throne and in a convenient place over a high tower called alcacer in our language, and she was adorned like an emperor’s wife, and around her were a large throng of noble women singing with tambourines, citharas, cymbals and lutes. But after the kings, princes, dukes and all the army saw her, they wondered, were very ashamed and bowed their heads before the empress’s face. They went back and then they harmed nothing and returned to their own land without honour and victory after bringing together their ambush forces.
56. Meanwhile the emperor ordered for guards to be placed throughout the riverbank to prevent the Saracens from drawing water, so that he could destroy them by thirst. He placed a shed over a place where they secretly drew water. But the Moors sallied forth from the fort and burned it with fire, because they found it without protection. Those who were in the fort were prevented from exiting and entering, and they became very hungry, and many of them perished through hunger and thirst,[xxxvii] because the cisterns that were within became depleted and they could not get water in any way. The emperor’s craftsmen brought the machines and ballistas to the fort and began to destroy its towers.
57. Seeing this, Ali held a counsel with his own men, and sent messengers to the emperor saying: “Consider us under treaty and grant us a period of one month so that we may send our messengers again across the sea to our king Tashfin and all the land of the Hagarenes. If there is no one to defend us, we will come out to you and give you the fort such that you can let us and all our property go in peace to our city of Calatrava.”[xxxviii] The emperor replied to them: “I will strike a treaty with you per this stipulation: that you should give me 15 senior hostages of all your men, with the exception of Ali. If there is no one to defend you, give me the fort and let the ballistas and all the arms and royal property remain in the fort, and take your own property with you. In addition, let the Christian captives in your prison have food from my table through the hands of my faithful subjects and let them likewise remain with you.” Ali reluctantly agreed to these words and gave hostages, and they were sent to Toledo under guard. He promised with an oath to fulfil everything as has been written above, and this was pleasing to the emperor.
58. So the messengers went across the sea to the home of King Tashfin, who ruled on behalf of his father Ali, and they reported to him everything the kings in the land of the Hagarenes had done, as well as everything that had happened in the fort. Hearing these words, he, his princes, his dukes and all his household became alarmed in mind, because things had not turned out for them as they had wanted.[xxxix] The messengers did not find any consolation in the household of King Tashfin or advice in the kings who were in the land of the Hagarenes, and they returned to Aurelia and reported to Ali and those with him the words from the mouth of King Tashfin and the others: that they could not expect any hope and that they should give the fort to the emperor.
59. On the final day of the month at the crack of dawn, the fort was given and the towers were filled with Christian soldiers, and the royal standards were elevated over the lofty tower. Those who held the standards shouted in a high voice and said: “Long live Emperor Alfonso of Leon and Toledo.” Hearing and seeing this, the bishops, all the clergy and all those who were in the camp raised their hands to the sky and said: “We praise You God, we profess You Lord” etc.
60. Ali left the fort and all those with him took their own property with him, while leaving behind the Christian captives and all the royal property in the fort in the hands of the Christians. They came to the emperor and the emperor received them peacefully, and they were with him in the day for some days, and hostages were given to the Christians. After this, he let them go to Calatrava and sent Roderic Fernandus with them in order protect them, because the Toledans wanted to kill them.
61. The fort was besieged in the month of April and captured by Emperor Alfonso in the month of October in era 1177,[xl] and the disgrace and the greatest war that had taken place in the land of Toledo and all of Extremadura were done away with.[xli] Then the emperor ordered for the fort to be fortified with a column of soldiers and infantry as well as ballistas, machines, all arms, water and all foods that can be eaten. All the army, princes and dukes returned to their own abodes, singing and praising God, for a great victory arose at the hand of His servant Emperor Alfonso.[xlii]
62. After this, the emperor arranged to come to Toledo. When all the people heard that the emperor was coming to Toledo, all the princes of the Christians, Saracens, Jews and all the people of the city came far out of the city to meet him with tambourines, citharas and lutes and every kind of music, each of them praising and glorifying God in their own tongue, for God made all the emperor’s acts successful. They were saying: “Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord, and blessed are you, your wife, your children and the realm of your forefathers, and blessed are your mercy and patience.” They led him into the city through the gate of Alcantara.[xliii]
63. From within, the archbishop Raymond of the Toledan church came out to the city square with a great procession of clerics and monks, and he received the emperor and they went with him to the church of Saint Mary, singing and saying: “Fear God and observe His commands” etc.[xliv] After the blessing was given, the archbishop went away, while the emperor was received in the alcacer and the royal palaces, and he was there for some days. Then he came to the Toledan cities and the forts, and he destroyed the impious among them, and all the workers of iniquity who were in all of Extremadura were thrown into disarray. Safety, mercy, peace and virtue were directed in his hand, and all who were in his entire kingdom took delight in all his works.[xlv]
64. Two years and six months after Aurelia was captured,[xlvi] the emperor came to Coria and surrounded it with his camp and ordered his craftsmen to make a wooden tower that towered over all the city walls, as well as machines, ballistas and sheds, with which they began to sap the city walls and destroy its towers. The Moabites and Hagarenes who were in the city were terrified with great fear and thus shut all the gates with their great and firm wall, and they were prevented from entering and exiting. Eventually severe hunger prevailed in the city and many of the Hagarenes died of hunger.[xlvii]
65. After the Moabites saw that they were heavily oppressed, they sought oaths of peace from the emperor in the following way: that they should look for someone to free them within a period of 30 days; otherwise, they would peacefully hand back the city with all its captives and royal property restored. When the emperor and all his counsellors heard this, it was pleasing to them. And so messengers were sent to their king Tashfin, who ruled on behalf of his father Ali, and to the home of King Avenceta and the home of King Azuel. They reported to them everything that had happened to them, as well as the sort of pact they had with the Leonese emperor. And so, since King Tashfin and the other kings did not have the power to free them or their city, ordered with much wailing for the city to be handed back and for the freeing of their lives and the fulfilment of everything they had pledged to the emperor. This was done without delay.
66. After the city was handed back to the emperor, it was cleansed from the impurity of the barbaric people and the contamination of Muhammad. After all the filth of the pagans of that city and its temple were destroyed, they dedicated a church in honour of Saint Mary the Eternal Virgin and all the saints.[xlviii] They also ordained a bishop there: a religious man called Navarro, just as it had been an episcopal seat from the days of old in the time the archbishop Ildefonsus and King Recared, when all that land belonged to the Christians from the Mediterranean to the Ocean. The city of Cauria was captured in era 1180 in the month of June.[xlix] After the emperor was endowed with such triumph and victory through God’s help, he returned with honours and in peace to his own city they call Salamanca, together with his whole army as they praised God, whose mercy encompasses all ages.
67. When the terrified Moabites left the fort of Alvalat empty
When the Moabites and Hagarenes who were in Alvalat saw that Coria had been captured, they were terrified with great fear and went away and left the fort empty. The Christian men of Avila and Salamanca came and utterly destroyed it. In the following year the very valorous man Munio Alfonso (previously mentioned by us as the qāʾid of Toledo) selected 900 soldiers from the bravest of Toledo, the other cities of the Toledans, Avila and Segovia, and 1000 elite infantry. As was his custom, he went with them to the middle of the Cordoban countryside and fixed his tents there. He also took gold, silver and great riches, and took many captives and brought about great massacres throughout the entire countryside of Cordoba. A Saracen captive escaped and fled and went to the King Azuel of Cordoba and King Avenceta of Seville, who were gathered as one and sought advice as to how they should wage war in the Christians’ land and come to Toledo. But they did not find suitable advice. Suddenly the Saracen who had fled from the Christians came to them and announced before them everything the Christians had done in their land.
68. Hearing this, they immediately ordered with great haste for the voices and heralds to intone throughout the whole countryside of Cordoba, Carmona and Seville and for the drums and trumpets to resound in the cities, forts and villages. Many thousands of soldiers, infantry and crossbowmen were gathered to them, and they pursued the Christians via the worn-out path by which they had headed back. Munio Alfonso looked from afar behind his back hither and thither and saw large readied battle-lines of the cavalry of the Moabites and Hagarenes and the raised royal standards, and very large battle-lines of infantry, crossbowmen, azecuti and the Hagarenes.
69. Seeing this, Munio Alfonso learned that they were King Azuel of Cordoba and King Avenzeta of Seville, and he told his allies: “I see the kings of the Moabites are pursuing us with large battle-lines of soldiers and infantry. Now let us hurry and go to the field of Montelo, ready our battle-lines there and await them.” They came to the aforementioned place and fixed their tents there, and all of them bent their knees and shouted to the Lord in prayer and said: “Oh Jesus of Nazareth, you who hung on the wood for us and poured blood for us. Behold the Moabites and Hagarenes, your enemies and our enemies, have gathered against us to destroy us. But you, take pity and snatch us away. Oh great Virgin of virgins, intercede for us to your son our Lord Jesus Christ. If you free us, we will faithfully give to your church established in Toledo the tithes from all the things you have given us or will give us. Oh Saint James, apostle of Christ, defend us in battle, so that we should not perish at the hands of the Saracens’ fearful judgement.”
70. After these words were said, Munio Alfonso drew up two very strong battle-lines of soldiers against the Saracens, and again Munio said: “Oh sons of God’s Christians, take heart and let us fight in a bold and manly manner against King Avenceta of Seville, who is braver than all the Saracens, for if Avenceta is beaten or dies, they will all be beaten. See to it that none of you should die turning back, for it is better for us to die in battle in one place than be dispersed here and there.” He also said: “Be mindful, my allies, that once upon a time I had 62 soldiers with me, of whom some are present here, whereas others have stayed in our cities. We fought with King Tashfin and all the military of Cordoba and with many thousands of soldiers and infantry in the plain they call Almodovar de Tendas, and the Lord hemmed them in at our hands and they were defeated, and King Tashfin fled, and his princes, dukes and many hundreds of soldiers and infantry died, whereas the rest of the fled. None of us fell, except one soldier, and we took countless spoils from them and we returned in peace to our cities.” He also said: “It is as easy for God to hem in many at the hands of a few as a few at the hands of many.[l] But now let matters turn out just as His will is in heaven.”[li] Then they shared in the sacrifices of the clerics they had with them.
71. Then the battles-lines of the Moabites and Hagarenes with their royal standards raised came and drew up large and very strong battle-lines against the Christians’ battle-lines. When King Avenceta saw the very small battle-lines of the Christians and that there were no signs of the princes among them, except that of Munio Alfonso the qāʾid of Toledo, he said to those standing around: “Oh irrational Christians, sons of dogs, how have you come to destroy your own heads!” Once the struggle was initiated, King Avenceta of Seville was immediately struck by two Toledan soldiers (one called Petrus Alvazila and another called Robert of Mongomariz). He died and his head was cut off.
72. And so when King Azuel, the other princes, dukes and all the military of the Moabites and Hagarenes and all the infantry saw this, they immediately turned back and fled hither and thither through the side-paths of the mountains, and they hid in the caverns of rocks. But Munio Alfonso and the other Christians pursued them, and while fleeing, King Azuel was crushed on the ground by Munio Alfonso’s spear and his head was cut off. Many princes and dukes of the Moabites and Hagarenes died, along with many thousands of soldiers and countless infantry. Many dukes, princes and many noble soldiers were captured, and likewise as many infantry were taken captive as each of the Christians could take with him according to his strength.
73. They took much silver, gold, royal standards, precious garments, excellent weapons, breast-plates, helmets, shields and the best horses and their saddles, plus male and female mules, and camels loaded with many riches. As for the king’s heads, they hung them on the type o their spears, on which were the royal standards, and the heads of the dukes and princes were hung on individual spears. Munio Alfonso ordered for the kings’ bodies to be wrapped in silk wraps, and he placed them in a green field and left Saracens with the bodies to protect them until they should be removed from there. Turning back to their own camp, they sang a hymn and blessed God, because His mercy endures forever.[lii]
74. On the next day, Munio Alfonso and his allies moved their camp, came to Toledo and entered the city through the gate of Alcantara. The raised royal standards preceded them and on top of the spears were heads of the kings, and following them were the noble soldiers taken captive in chains, and behind them were the Saracen people with hands bound behind their backs. Following them were the infantry of the Christians, dragging with them the kings’ horses, male and female mules of the dukes , princes and soldiers together with their excellent saddles wrought of gold and silver, and then they dragged the male and female mules they call azemilae,[liii] as well as camels loaded with arms and all the spoils.
75. Thus they came before the doors of the church of Saint Mary, where the Empress Mistress Berengaria (the emperor’s wife) was present. Also present were the archbishop of Toledo Lord Raymond, all the clergy, all the soldiers of the city and all the people, who had come to see the miracle and victory. After they saw the heads of the Saracen kings on top of the spears, on which the royal standards were raised, all wondered and entered the church of Saint Mary with great joy, singing and saying: “We praise You God, we profess You Lord” etc. After the blessing was given, the archbishop and all the others went to their tents.
76. On the next day at the crack of dawn, the Empress Mistress Berengaria, Munio Alfonso and his allies sent messengers to the emperor in Segovia, saying: “The empress our wife, and Munio Alfonso, whom you made qāʾid of Toledo, says these words to their lord the emperor: may you not be sluggish in any way in coming to us, and do not delay at all, but come to your home in Toledo and there you will see great things and the victory that the Lord has granted for you and your whole kingdom.” Hearing this, the emperor greatly rejoiced and hurriedly proceeded to Toledo.
77. When Munio Alfonso and his victorious allies heard that the emperor was coming to Toledo, they went out to meet him far from the city, and they were preceded by the royal standards and on the top of the spears were the hung heads of the kings and the heads of the dukes and princes thus hung, and the captive Saracen soldiers were in chains. Behind these were the rest of the people of the Hagarenes with their hands bound behind their backs, the kings’ horses, the male and female mules of the princes and soldiers, all the armies, azemilae and camels burned with many spoils. After the emperor saw all this and the heads of the kings hung on the top of the spears, on which the royal standards were, he was amazed and gave great thanks to Lord God and said: “Blessed be the Lord God, the creator of all, terrifying and strong, just and merciful, who alone is the good King, the only outstanding one, the only just one, the omnipotent and the eternal, who freed you from the sword of these kings and the hands of the Saracens, and who always frees me and His faithful ones from every ill.”[liv]
78. After these things were done, they came to the royal palaces in the city. First of all, the tithes of all things were given to God and the church of Daint Marty, and then they gave the emperor the fifth part, as is the custom of the kings. In addition, they gave him the royal standards, kings’ horses and female mules, and many other gifts, and they separated precious gifts from the mass of goods. They sent these precious gifts to Saint James of Compostela. Munio Alfonso and his allies divided the rest of the goods among themselves in their own manner.
79. Munio Alfonso ordered for the kings’ heads and the other heads of the princes and dukes to be hung on the top of Toledo’s citadel, so that it should be a sign of God’s help, clear to all the Christians, Moabites and Hagarenes.[lv] Some days later, the empress, moved with great mercy, ordered for the kings’ heads to be brought down, and she ordered the Jewish and Saracen doctors to anoint them with myrrh and aloe, and for the heads to be wrapped in the best cloths, and to send them in chests made of gold and silver. Then the empress honorifically sent them to the queens- the wives of these kings- at Cordoba. This victory was brought about by God in era 1181 in the month of March.
80. It was heard in the household of King Tashfin that the kings who ruled in the land of the Hagarenes had died. The king was saddened and troubled, as was his entire region with him. He summoned all the princes of the Christians he had with him as well as those of the Moabites and the Arabs (i.e. his own counsellors), and he said to them: “What advice do you give me? What am I to do about the land of the Hagarenes, which lacks a king?” They all responded to him together and said: “Behold Avengania your faithful friend is present. There is none better than he here or there.” He gave him leadership of Cordoba, Carmona, Seville and Granada, and all the land of the Hagarenes, and he said to him: “Take gold and silver in abundance from my treasures and go to the land of the Christians and take vengeance of rour brother kings who were killed. May your sword not spare any region of theirs and you will subjugate for me and you every fortified city and the towns.”
81. In the same year as the aforementioned wars were waged by Munio Alfonso, the emperor gathered great armies of soldiers, infantry and crossbowmen, and they set up camp at Toledo next to the river called the Tagus. Eventually the emperor summoned two of his dukes (namely, Munio Alfonso the qāʾid of Toledo, and Martinus Fernandus, the qāʾid of Fita and other cities). He said to them: “Take charge of this people[lvi] and land and preside over them in the town called Penna Nigra nicknamed Penna Christiana, and prevent the Moabites and Hagarenes from coming and fortifying the fort called Mora.”
82. The emperor and all his army departed to the region of Cordoba. It was the days of the harvest, and he had all the crops burned, and all the fruit-bearing trees, vineyeards, olive trees and fig trees cut down.[lvii] He set fire to all the land of Cordoa, Carmona and Seville, and all the land was burned and there remained nothing except the fortified cities and towns. He brought about great massacres and took very large numbers of people captive, and seized abundant booty.
83. In the days in which the emperor was in the land of Cordoba, Farax adali, the prince of Calatrava, and all the princes and dukes of the Moabites and Hagarenes who were in all the cities and towns up to the river called the Guadalquivir, gathered together and made a plan to come to the land of Toledo and fortify the fort called mora, and set ambushes against Munio Alfonso and kill him. He was in the fort called Penna Nigra.
84. It happened on the first day of the Kalends of August[lviii] that before daybreak should come, the aforementioned Munio, the qāʾid of Toledo, went out of the aforementioned fort along with 40 Toledan soldiers. He left his ally Martinus Fernandus there to guard the fort. Munio Alfonso and his allies ascended into the mountainous areas opposite Calatrava, in order to see and hear what had happened. While the Toledan qāʾid’s soldiers were proceeding hither and thither, they found a Saracen man hiding in a cave.
They arrested him and brought him before the qāʾid of Toledo. And so Munio Alfonso said to him: “To whom do you belong, where are you from, and where are you going?” He said to him: “I am a Hagarene youth, a servant of Farax the adali of Calatrava. My master sent me to look for you.” Munio Alfonso said to him: “Where is Farax the adali?” He replied to him: “Behold, he follows behind me with a great multitude of soldiers and infantry, bearing with him camels, mules, horses and asses loaded with flour and all the foods that can be eaten, so that he may fortify the fort called Mora. Behind the multitude of Farax the adali is a very large multitude of Moabite and Hagarene soldiers, infantry and crossbowmen, whose number is around 4000. They have come to ill you and those with you, if they can find you somewhere.” He was stil speaking and behold the first battle-line of the Saracens arrived. Munio Alfonso and his allies did battle with them and immediately the Saracens were defeated and turned back, and many of them died and the rest fled here and there, leaving great spoils in the field.
85. After this, Munio Alfonso returned to Penna Nigra and reported everything he had done that day to Martinus Fernandus, and that Farax the adali was coming with a great army to wage war against them. After holding counsel, they ate the bread and wine. Then Munio Alfonso, Martinus Fernandus and all the soldiers with them readied their battle-lines, and went out to confront the Saracens. They found the pagans’ battle-lines readied in the wells of Algodor. Once the struggle was initiated, many men on both sides fell and Martinus Fernandus was wounded, and the Saracens retreated from the Christians, and the Christians likewise retreated from the Saracens. A great space arose between the battle-lines of the Saracens and the Christians.
86. When Munio Alfonso realised that time was not on his side,[lix] he said to Martinus Fernandus: “Oh lord Martinus, leave me, you and your soldiers, and go with them to Penna Nigra and guard that place diligently, lest by chance the Moabites and Hagarenes should come from the other side and occupy the fort first, and that would be a great error against the household of our lord emperor. My allies and I will fight with them. Let matters thus be as the will in heaven is.”[lx] Martinus Fernandus and all his soldiers headed back to the fort to guard it. Munio Alfonso also said to a stepson of his (his wife’s son), whom he had made a soldier in that year on the day of Easter: “Go to your mother’s home in Toledo and take care of it and my children who are your siblings. May it not please God that your mother should one day be deprived of me and you.” Then the soldier said to him: “I will not go but I will die with you.” Then Munio Alfonso became angry and struck him with the pole of his spear, and he reluctantly went to Toledo, weeping and howling.
87. At that hour, the Moabites and Hagarenes fought against Munio Alfonso and his allies, and many wounded fell on both sides.[lxi] After Munio Alfonso saw that he and his allies were heavily oppressed, they climbed a cliff called Penna Cervi and the archers followed him. The Toledan Munio was severely wounded by the archers and died, and all the soldiers with him died around him, and a very large proportion of the princes of the Moabites and Hagarenes died.
88. Farax the adali came and cut off his head and right arm together with his shoulder, and his right hand and foot together with his tibia. He stripped him of his arms and wrapped his disfigured body in clean linen-cloths. They cut off many heads of the Christian soldiers and sent Munio Alfonso’s head to the home of Azuel’s wife in Cordoba and to King Avenceta’s home in Seville, and then across the sea to the home of King Tashfin, so that it would be publicised in all the land of the Moabites and the Hagarenes. They hung Munio Alfonso’s arm and foot and the heads of other soldiers over a high tower that is above Calatrava.
89. When the inhabitants of Toledo heard about all that the Saracens had done, they came and took Munio Alfonso’s body and the bodies of his allies and buried them in the cemetery of Saint Mary in Toledo. For many days, Munio Alfonso’s wife and her friends and the other widows came to Munio Alfonso’s tomb and wailed in this way and said: “Oh Munio Alfonso, we grieve over you. Just as a woman loves her only husband, so the city of Toledo loved you. Your shield never turned aside in war and your spear never came back. Your sword did not return empty-handed. Do not announce Munio Alfonso’s death in Cordoba and Seville, and do not announce it in King Tashfin’s home, lest by chance the daughters of the Moabites should rejoice and the daughters of the Hagarenes should be overjoyed, and the daughters of the Toledans should be saddened.”
90. Munio Alfonso, whom we have sufficiently mentioned as qāʾid of Toledo, died, as did all his warriors who were with him, because of the great sin he committed against God: namely, the fact that he killed his daughter whom he had from his legitimate wife because she was playing with a young-man, and he did not pity his daughter in the way the Lord was merciful towards him in all the battles he waged. Nor was he mindful of the wife caught in adultery, whom the scribes and Pharisees brought before the Lord and wanted to stone, to whom the Lord said: “The one of you is without sin, let him be the first to cast the stone.”[lxii] But Munio Alfonso lamented this sin for all the days of his life and wanted to perform pilgrimage to Jerusalem, but Raymond the archbishop of the Toledan church, and the other bishops and clerics were asked by the emperor not to perform pilgrimage, and so they ordered him to always wage war on the Saracens as penance, just as he did until he was killed by them.
91. While these things were happening, the emperor had travelled through the whole land of Cordoba, Carmona and Seville, and he returned with great victory, and when he came around Talavera, he fixed his camp on the plain around the river Tagus. The soldiers of the city and his dispensers came to him, and he learned from them about what happened regarding Munio Alfonso, and he became very sad. The counts, princes and dukes saw the great sadness on the emperor’s face, and all of them came to him and stood in his presence and said to him: “Oh Lord Emperor, there are many in your kingdom who are like Munio Alfonso and are better. Fortune, which men said belonged to Munio Alfonso, was, is and will be yours for all the days of your life, because it has been sent by God to you. None of us is granted fortune by God like you.” Hearing this, the emperor considered their words and remained silent for around half an hour, and then he replied to them: “May each one of you return to his own abode and in the following year, all of you, the entire military of Galicia, Leon and Castile, and all the soldiers and infantry of all of Extremadura are to be with me in Toledo in the middle of the month of September.” Hearing this, they returned to their own abodes.
92. After the cycle of a year passed: i.e. in era 1182 in the month of September[lxiii]
All the counts, princes and dukes of the emperor came to Toledo with their own military forces, and likewise came the king’s college, all the qāʾids and the soldiers and infantry of all of Extremadura. After this, the emperor moved his army and sent in front of him great raiding expeditions in all the region of Cordoba, Carmona, Seville and Granada. These expeditions destroyed the entire land of Baeza and Ubeta and all the countryside of Cordoba and Seville, and they came to the territory of Almeria and destroyed all the vineyards, olive trees, and fig-trees, and cut down all the orchards and burned them with fire. They also set fire to their cities, villages and hamlets, and burned many of their forts with flame, and captured their men, women and children, and took great booty of horses, mares, camels, mules and asses, as well as oxen, cows and all the livestock, in addition to gold, silver and all the precious things that were in their homes, and all the furniture and whatever else they could take. They brought all these aforementioned things to the emperor in the camp in the land of Granada, and all the region of the Hagarenes was destroyed from Almeria to Calatrava, and only a few very well-fortifed cities and very well-fortified towns remained. After this, the emperor and all his army returned to Toledo bearing abundant riches, and with a great victory and peace.
93. When the princes, dukes and all the people of the Hagarenes saw their woes had been multiplied[lxiv] and that the emperor and his army were coming each year to their territory, and that the enemies of Toledo, Segovia, Avila, Salamanca and other cities were destroying their land on a daily basis, they gathered in the squares and meeting halls of their cities and their synagogues and said: “What will we do, for we will not be able to bear the war of the emperor and his dukes?” Several of them responded saying: “The Moabites are eating up the fat of the land[lxv] and our possessions, taking our gold and silver from us, and oppressing our wives and children. So let us fight against them and kill them, and remove their dominion from us, because we have no part in the household of King Tashfin, nor do we have inheritance among the sons of Ali and his father Yusuf.”
But others said: “Let us first make an agreement and peace with the emperor of Leon and Toledo and let us give him royal tribute, just as our forefathers gave to their forefathers.” This seemed good their eyes and that they should be prepared for battle against the Moroccans. Then they turned to their synagogues and prayed, requesting the mercies of Muhammad their false-prophet, so that he should aid their initiatives and acts. They sent messengers and summoned King Zafadola and all the seedline of the Hagarene kings, asking them to come and wage war against the Moabites.
94. In era 1183 in the month of October[lxvi]
Muhammad the duke, who was of the royal seedline, killed all the Moabites who were in Mertula and all its territory. Then those who were in Valencia, Murcia, Lerida and Tortosa and many other cities, were killed in a fight by the Hagarenes. In those days, King Zafadola and all the cities of Cordoba, Jaen, Ubete, Baeza, Andújar, Seville, Granada, Almería and that region around the Mediterranean Sea up to Toledo, engaged in war with the Moabites and with Avengania, their duke, and many thousands of Moabites and Hagarenes died. The Hagarenes prevailed and expelled Avengania from Cordoba and all the Moabites from it and from many other cities and towns. After being expelled, he took up his position on the high towers of Cordoba that are called alcacer in our language, and in Almodovar, Montoro, Carmona and Seville. All the Moabites who escaped from the Hagarenes’ sword fled to him and became a great source of support for him.[lxvii] A great slaughter and disturbance arose in all the land of the Hagarenes, such as did not exist from that day when the Hagarenes crossed the Mediterranean and occupied the land.
95. In that time there was a priest of Muhammad’s law in Cordoba. He was from the seedline of the Hagarenes and his name was Abefandi. He was richer than all the men who were residing in Cordoba. He summoned Farax the adali of Calatrava and all the elders of Cordoba as well as relatives and friends, and he held a secret counsel with them,[lxviii] saying that they should kill King Zafadola and he should rule in his place. King Zafadola did not remain unaware of this matter and summoned all his faithful soldiers and the Christian infantry he had to accompany him. He departed Cordoba with them, and Farax the adali was also with him, and King Zafadola said to Farax the adali: “Because you wanted to betray me, I will ensure that you are not able to attain that.” Looking at the Christians he said: “Attack him and kill him.” They immediately killed him.
96. Taking up this opportunity,[lxix] Abefandi and the Cordobans wanted to kill King Zafadola and pursued him. But he departed to Jaén and from there to Granada, and he waged many battles with the Moabites and seized their cities and towns. Abefandi became duke in Cordoba. Then King Zafadola sent messengers to the emperor saying: “The land of Ubeta and Baeza and their towns do not wish to obey me or give you tribute.” Hearing this, the emperor summoned the counts Malric, Exmegot and Pontius along with Martinus Fernandus, and he said to them: “Go and subjugate for me and King Zafadola Baeza, Ubeta, Jaen and all the rebellious men, and may your sword not spare any of them.”
97. They departed with a great army and destroyed all the rebellious land and took large amounts of booty and captives. After the citizens of that region saw they were heavily oppressed, they sent an embassy to King Zafadola saying: “Come, free us from the Christians’ hands and we will serve you in safety.” He immediately came with a large army, left it in front of the Christians, and peacefully came to their camp and said to the counts: “Give me the captives and booty you took, and I will go with you to the emperor and do whatever the emperor orders me.” The counts replied to him: “Perish the thought that we should do this, because you sent messengers to the emperor saying: the men of Ubeta and Baeza are rebelling against me and you, and now sent an army to destroy them and their land. We have done just as you and the emperor ordered us.” Zafadola responded to them saying: “If you do not give me all the captives and booty, I will take up arms and fight with you.” The counts responded to him: “Now are the time and hour.” Immediately they readied their battle-lines and did battle, and the battle became very intense.
98. Finally, the Hagarenes turned back and were beaten, and King Zafadola was captured in the battle by the counts’ soldiers. While they held him to bring him to the tents, additional soldiers whom they call Pardi came, and they recognised him and killed him. Seeing this, the counts were very saddened, and they sent messengers to the emperor who was in the royal city of Leon. They reported to him all the words of war, but after they said: “Your friend Zafadola has died,” the king became very saddened and said: “I am innocent of the blood of my friend Zafadola.” All the Christians and Saracens from Arabia next to the river Jordan up to the Ocean sea knew that the emperor was never an accessory to King Zafadola’s death.
99. Then, Abefandi, the duke of Cordoba, could not sustain the war of Avengaia and the Moabites and fled to Andújar along with his friends, and the cities of that city received him. But Avengania pursued him and besieged Andújar, and constructed the machines, ballistas, and many siege engines of war, and he began to fight in a manly manner against Abefandi and those with him in the city. After Abefandi saw he was heavily oppressed, he sent messengers to the emperor saying: “Behold Avengania and all his military forces have besieged me. But take pity on me in accordance with your mercy, and free me, and I and my friends will serve you in safety.”
100. After hearing these words of Abefandi’s messengers, the emperor summoned Fernandus John, his faithful friend and the duke of Limia. He helped the emperor against King Alfonso of Portugal in Limia, and said to him: “Take from my soldiers whomever and however many you wish, and go to Andújar and keep hold of Abefandi’s city, until I come.” He immediately went away with a great throng of soldiers, and they entered Andújar. When Abefandi and the citizens of the city saw him, they greatly rejoiced. Fernandus John and the Christians with him, and Abefandi and his men waged many battles with Avengania even outside the city, and many perished here and there.
101. While these wars were being waged in the land of the Hagarenes, Reverter, the duke of the captive Christian people across the sea in King Tashfin’s household, died. All the captive people of the Christians sprinkled dust and mud over themselves, and grieved and said: “Oh lord Reverter, our duke, shield and breastplate, why do you abandon us or for whom do you leave us desolate? Now the Muzmuti will attack us and kill us and our wives and children as well.” King Tashfin and all his household wailed over Reverter.
102. The king of the Assyrians called Abdelnomen, who was reigning in the Clear Mountains[lxx] and reigned on Mount Colobrar and in Bugia over the peoples they call Muzmuti and over many other nations, heard that Reverter- the duke of the captive Christian people- had died. Reverter used to wage war against him on a daily basis. He rejoiced greatly and immediately came to the territory of the region of King Tashfin. He had more than 100,000 soldiers with him, and a countless number of crossbowmen and infantry. He captured the well-fortified cities and towns and killed many princes and dukes of the Christians, Moabites and Arabs. He brought about countless other massacres of men, women and children, and he burned the entire land with fire wherever he proceeded. After these events, the aforementioned King of the Muzmuti set his sights on coming to the city of the Moroccans.
103. After King Tashfin heard of the aforementioned wars, he was terrified with great dear, and he and his entire region with him were troubled. He gathered all the princes and dukes of the Christians, who were second after Reverter, the princes and dukes of the Moabites and Arabs, the magistrates of the people and the entre army of his kingdom and he went out to fight the king of the Muzmuti and they fought over the course of some days. Eventually King Tashfin was overcome, fled and entered a fort. The king of the Muzmuti pursued him, besieged him in the aforementioned fort and sent a very strong fire they call a pitch fire onto the tower where King Tashfin was residing along with ballistas and arrows, and burned the tower, and King Tashfin was burned there, and many princes of the Christians, Moabites and Arabs, and many thousands of soldiers and a countless number of infantry were burned with him and died.
104. Great confusion arose in the household of King Ali, such as there had not been from the day when the kings of the Moabites began to reign across the sea. After King Tashfin died, the king of the Muzmuti ascended many forts, gained control of every fortification[lxxi] and stormed many well-fortified and very opulent cities. He reached the city of the Moroccans and fought against the city and committed great massacres there, and he captured the high towers there and fortified them with brave men to make war on the city, and he handed over to the fire all whom he could capture and were resisting him, along with their wives and children.
105. Avengania and all the Moabites with him in the land of the Hagarenes heard that King Tashfin had fallen, and many princes and dukes who were with him from every nation had their hands and hearts undone.[lxxii] The Hagarenes rejoiced. The emperor’s household was not saddened because of King Tashfin’s death, but…[lxxiii]
106. Of John the Baptist in the place,[lxxiv] where previously the synagogue of Satan[lxxv] had been constructed. The bishop of Burgos died in that siege, while the emperor was still remaining there, on the aforementioned nativity of Saint John.[lxxvi]
107. Nonetheless one must not retreat from the praise and honour of God, who protects His servants everywhere, crushes the enemies of His law and reduces them to nothing. For while the Leonese emperor, the terror of the Ishmaelites, was still besieging the aforementioned city, the noble and eloquent ambassadors of the Genoese came to him, urging him to vow to destroy Almeria, the seat of the pirates, who went around the various seas, and then suddenly left the land of Bari, the land of Ashkelon, the region of the people of Constantinople, Sicily, Barcelona, and then Pisa, the Franks or Portugal, Galicia and the Asturian lands, and fled on their ships bearing booty and Christian captives. They impressed this urge upon him through frequent repetition[lxxvii] and so finally, lest we should seem to be disturbing and holding back his pronouncement in words, they received 30,000 morabits from the emperor, and acquired many ships, men, arms, siege engines, and loaded provisions. They and the emperor set the Kalends of August as the deadline for their arrival.
108. Moreover, the emperor sent the ambassador Arnaldus bishop of Astorga to the consul of Barcelona and to Villemus, the lord of Mount Pesulanus, so that they should all together be present on the Kalends of August at the pirates’ nest in order to redeem their souls. They received his words with joy and promised to be present with the Genoese.
109. In the same year that the aforementioned victory of Cordoba was granted by god, the peoples, whom they commonly call Muzmuti, came from Africa and crossed the Mediterranean Sea. Implementing a great scheme, they first occupied Seville through war as well as other fortified cities and towns around it and located far off, and they dwelled in them and killed Seville’s nobles, the Christians they call Mozarabs, and the Jews, who were there from ancient times. They took their wives, homes and riches for themselves.
110. In this time many thousands of soldiers and infantry of the Christians, together with their bishop and a great part of the clerics who were of the household of King Ali and his son Tashfin, crossed the sea and came to Toledo.
111. Now turning to greater matters in verses, so that we can remove the tedium through the variation of poetry, we have arranged to speak in this way about which dukes of the Franks and Spaniards came to the pre-determined siege.
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[i] Ali bin Tashfin, who reigned as Almoravid ruler in the period 1106-1143 CE.
[ii] Tashfin bin Ali, who reigned as Almoravid ruler in the period 1143-1145 CE.
[iii] i.e. in Spain.
[iv] The Sierra de Guadarrama, a mountain range located southeast of the city of Segovia.
[v] He was a nephew of El Cid Campeador.
[vi] The Latin word here is alcadran, derived from Arabic.
[vii] For discussion of this term, see Juan Francisco Domínguez Domínguez and Raúl Manchón Gómez, “Metalinguística y Purismo en La Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris. Reflexiones Sobre un Supuesto Arabismo (Azecuti),” Minerva 11 (1997), pp. 157-179, which suggests the term is a Latin-Arabic hybrid neologism, and may refer to men of the rearguard.
[viii] i.e. Christianity.
[ix] Psalm 126:1.
[x] Likely a borrowing from the Arabic al-qaṣr (meaning “castle” or “fort”).
[xi] It is most likely that the text is referring here to Muḥammad bin Maymūn, who commanded the Almoravid fleet in this period.
[xii] Respectively, commanders of companies of 1000, 500 and 100 men.
[xiii] ʿAbd al-Muʾmin, leader of the Almohad movement.
[xiv] An administrative official at the municipal level in medieval Spain.
[xv] Probably corresponding to the Arabic name Faraj.
[xvi] Known in Arabic as Qalʿat Rabāḥ (“Fortress of Rabāḥ”).
[xvii] The Latin term here is adali, which probably derives from the Arabic dalīl (meaning “guide”). It appears to indicate the position of a governor here.
[xviii] Refer to Book One for discussion.
[xix] Coria= Cauria.
[xx] Corresponding to the Arabic name al-Zubayr, who served as an Almoravid governor of Cordoba.
[xxi] It is not clear who exactly Avenceta is.
[xxii] Cf. 1 Maccabees 9:11. The Latin original, based on a translation of the Greek, literally reads here: “all the powerful men of the first struggle.”
[xxiii] Cf. e.g. 1 Maccabees 5:57.
[xxiv] Cf. 1 Samuel 4:17.
[xxv] Cf. Daniel 13:60.
[xxvi] Cf. 1 Maccabees 4:8-10.
[xxvii] CF. 1 Maccabees 4:23-24.
[xxviii] Cf. 1 Maccabees 4:60-61.
[xxix] i.e. May 1138 CE.
[xxx] Cf. Judith 2:17-18 and Deuteronomy 11:24.
[xxxi] Cf. James 5:16.
[xxxii] i.e. Marrakech.
[xxxiii] Derived from the Arabic mustaʿrab, which means ‘Arabised.’ A term generally used to refer to Iberian Christians living under Muslim rule. Many did in fact learn Arabic and adopt aspects of Arabic culture, and thus even after many of them had returned to Christian-controlled lands, they were somewhat culturally distinct from other Iberian Christians at least until the end of the 13th century CE.
[xxxiv] Cf. 2 Samuel 7:1.
[xxxv] Cf. Genesis 6:21.
[xxxvi] A gap in the text makes the reading somewhat uncertain here.
[xxxvii] Cf. 1 Maccabees 13:49.
[xxxviii] Cf. 1 Samuel 11:1-3.
[xxxix] Cf. 1 Maccabees 4:26-27.
[xl] October 1139 CE.
[xli] Cf. 1 Maccabees 4:58.
[xlii] Cf. Judith 15:18.
[xliii] Alcantara derives from the Arabic al-qanṭara, which means “the bridge” or “the aqueduct.”
[xliv] Cf. Ecclesiastes 12:13.
[xlv] Cf. 1 Maccabees 3:6-8.
[xlvi] i.e. April 1142 CE.
[xlvii] Cf. 1 Maccabees 13:49.
[xlviii] Cf. 1 Maccabees 13:47-48.
[xlix] June 1142 CE.
[l] Cf. 1 Maccabees 3:18.
[li] Cf. 1 Maccabees 3:60.
[lii] Cf. 1 Maccabees 4:24.
[liii] This appears to derive from the Arabic zamīla, which literally means a female travelling companion.
[liv] Cf. 2 Maccabees 1:24-25.
[lv] Cf. 2 Maccabees 15:35.
[lvi] Cf. 1 Maccabees 5:19.
[lvii] Cf. Judith 2:17-18.
[lviii] 1 August.
[lix] Cf. 1 Maccabees 12:1.
[lx] Cf. 1 Maccabees 3:60.
[lxi] Cf. 1 Maccabees 9:17.
[lxii] Cf. John 8:7.
[lxiii] i.e. September 1144 CE.
[lxiv] Cf. 1 Maccabees 3:42.
[lxv] Cf. Genesis 45:18.
[lxvi] i.e. October 1145 CE.
[lxvii] Cf. 1 Maccabees 2:43.
[lxviii] Cf. Judith 2:2.
[lxix] Cf. Romans 7:8.
[lxx] The Atlas Mountains.
[lxxi] Cf. Judith 2:12 ff.
[lxxii] Cf. e.g. Jeremiah 6:24.
[lxxiii] Gap in the original text here.
[lxxiv] Gap in the original text here.
[lxxv] Cf. Revelation 2:8-9.
[lxxvi] Gap in the original text here.
[lxxvii] Cf. e.g. Quintilian Institutio Oratoria 1.1.31.
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